With lot of international students from coming to the

With the attacks
on the World Trade Center Twin Towers during the beginning of the 21st
century, have Americans wondering, why the rest of the World does not like the
USA or why such events could actually even happen, especially as the US image
of working model in regards to cultural diversity, people and immigration
destination in comparison to that of the European Union model, Russia or China
for example is more positive. Several authors such as one of last year´s
articles written in the people´s daily online mentioned how US role model has
been suffering recently and the focus is more on China. (People´s Daily)
However due to the war efforts US society and America itself has received a
negative image and fewer countries trust in US leadership. After the September
11 attacks, US foreign policy makers restricted visas for students which
hindered a lot of international students from coming to the USA, which again
influenced the image. More information to educational exchange programs and how
they affect a country´s policy are listed further below. The time period after
the attacks is crucial to understand public diplomacy as the United States was
preparing for war, but at the same time trying to repair its image to the world
especially the Muslim world. The United States even aired videos of Muslims
living the American dream life in the United States, which was of course very
offensive and not even shown in a lot of the Muslim countries. Additional
efforts to fix US image was by broadcasting Valentine´ s day messages to
influence the minds of the Arab world. These messages were not in the form of
“I love you” or anything, but rather positive messages in Arabic language to
help influence the minds. As Bush steps down from his presidency and publishes
the book “decision points” we will take a closer look at how his decisions
caused Obama´s election, how Obama´s decisions have affected US public
diplomacy and its image to the rest of the world especially the Islamic World
and how his decision intern caused Trump´s election and how his decisions are
seen by the rest of the world, including the Islamic World. Starting off with
Obama, as his election and presidency came before Trumps. Obama, as US Foreign
Policy magazine calls it, “Obama opened his heart to the Muslim world and got
it stomped on” (Michael Oren) The article states, that Obama was basically too
kind hearted with the idea of peace and therefore had a soft spot and a blind
eye for breeding grounds for terrorist activities, which therefore caused him
to isolate himself from the allies, including his actions of refusing to
acknowledge the acts in Paris. Even though Obama has a, soft heart, his success
in regards to the Osama bin Laden situation have been very positive towards his
presidency. Obama has approved of drone strikes, that have killed civilians,
which has not been taken lightly (Dan De Luce). Overall Obama´s intentions are
seen as positive, but his actions and simplistic views have hurt relations in
the process. According to Philip Seib, journalist at the World Post, Obama is
more focused on less use of force and connecting with the public directly,
instead of using the government as an intermediary (Philip Seib). Trump´s view
on the Muslim and Islamic world are different than those from Obama and are one
of the reason this part of the world is in fear of Trump´s recent election.
Trump´s outspoken view on Mexican immigrants, his racist remarks, disregard for
others and views on Israel are what scares the Muslim world. Analysts believe
that his understanding of historical events and are dangerous to peace and will
cause destabilization, which will cause more harm and conflicts in the area.
This has caused protests around the world, from different groups, such as
recent Muslim protests in New York close to his office. Trump´s more aggressive
approach and utter disregard for respect have caused a lot of uproar and fear,
but are one of the reasons he was elected, as he is not worried about political
correctness. As you can see the last two presidents have both been regarded
differently towards their policies regarding the Muslim and Islamic world. By
looking at articles written by USC Center of Public Diplomacy, you can see that
there has been an increase in crimes against Muslims and very few Trump
supporters have a positive view towards Muslims (USC Center for Public
Diplomacy) According to research countries like Lebanon for example, have a
rather negative view towards the United States of America, while they still
enjoy watching American movies, culture and other pop, etc. Most of these
countries just don´t really like the way the US government does business and
run the country, but that does not mean they have the exact same feeling
towards all the citizens. These views also include a more positive view towards
citizens freedoms, rights, such as freedom of speech, expression and other
traits that are not necessarily available in those countries.

4. Current Situation

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Now we will take a
closer look at the history of US public policy including the founding fathers
and how they used their foreign policy to prevent an outbreak of a war and
ended up winning their independence and ended up forming the United States of
America. The research period for the history will be the beginning of the
United States and then a main focus on the 20th century, with the
main events related war, meaning World War 1, World War 2 and the Cold War
period. The 21st century with the September 11 attacks, will be
discussed in another portion.  Basically,
the United States or at that time colonies, as the United States as a country
did not formally exist, was being taxed by the British Empire to pay for their
own benefits including going to war. What enraged the colonies even further was
the fact that they were being taxed without actually having elected any officials,
which was known as taxation without representation. This of course enraged the
colonies, as they themselves were not able to vote for any representation and
were being taxed without even having any representatives. If you look at it
from this point of view, you could consider the founding fathers the first
diplomats of the United States of America. Ben Franklin acted on the colonies
behalf and flew out to different countries, presenting his case to governments
and releasing articles, pamphlets and other documents to further his cause. US
Public Diplomacy was a little bit quieter after that. Events in the 20th
century have given rise again to more use of US Public Diplomacy. During the
outbreak of the first World War in the 1917 President Woodrow Wilson came up
with the idea to establish a Committee on Public Information, or CPI for short.
This was a campaign from the US government to get the general public involved
in World War 1. Not only did this campaign try to get the general public
involved, but also asked for support and in the hopes of also stopping local
and foreign opinion against US involvement in the war. This time period is
where the famous recruiting poster came from “I want you for US Army”. During
World War 2 the United States establishes the Office of War Information or OWI
for short was a campaign for domestic and foreign propaganda. Other media
outlets used during World War 2 include the Voice of America or VOA for short,
relaying it´s message in over 40 different languages and listened by over 80
million people worldwide. Other tasks during World War 2 were to write anti
German Nazi propaganda and to give additional information about actual war
events and other useful information needed. During the Cold War, the United
States was very famous for using its Jazz Diplomacy to help ease tension and
diminish the image of the Soviet Union, especially in Eastern Bloc countries.
The idea behind Jazz Diplomacy stems from musical minds, the idea that music is
easier to win over people´s hearts and souls in comparison to economic data.
Jazz Diplomacy also helped America with their previous racist image, it also
helped people understand American culture and history, better as Jazz music
originated in the USA. As Jazz music is more interesting than listening to a
politician, this was used as a weapon against the Soviet Union and communism.
Even Bill Clinton plays the Saxophone, promoting some form of Jazz during his
election years and probably continues to do it without being president. Other
anti-communist propaganda was created by the USA to further attempt to subdue
the USSR and it´s influence in the rest of the world. After the collapse of the
Soviet Empire, US public policy took a nose dive, as the US felt like there was
no competition or threat anymore, as the red evil influence no longer
existed.  You could actually say, that US
public diplomacy helped end and win the Cold War, depending on how you look at
it. Additional programs offered by the USA, helping promote American culture
were American dance and ballet in the Ukraine for example and other countries. This
was the same time period US image was not always positive, as for example, the
Vietnam war, race issues, especially slavery and segregation have not been
viewed favorably by others, including the killing of Dr. Martin Luther King,
who´s goal was to achieve unity and peace, rather than war. US image has been
going up and down during the entire Cold War Period (Bryce Strokes) All these
cultural programs are or have a good influence on, however they have one
drawback, cost. They cost a lot. Looking at these examples, you can see that
another form of US public policy is cultural diplomacy, which is basically
spreading culture and one of the most effective ways in working with soft
power. This includes, but is not limited to building libraries, cultural
exhibitions and centers helping participants succeed in their future career

3. History

To better
understand governments actions and interactions with the world and other
countries it is important to know what public diplomacy is and how leaders use
it for their countries and how their interaction with other leaders affects its
citizens and the people and major public in general. For example, a diplomat
could be using his own made public diplomacy regarding the current situation
given in his or her host country, making sure it suits local conditions. Public
diplomacy is if you think about it a little like running a business, you are
going to find ways to market your country, for example by producing information
about your country, such as magazines, literature, movies, etc. To be more
specific when it comes to the United States, ‘Public diplomacy entails
informing, engaging and influencing foreign publics so that they may, in turn,
encourage their governments to support key U.S. policies’ (US Advisory
Commission) Public diplomacy is a part of a country´s foreign policy tool. Now
of course, some countries, such as North Korea do not care much about their
image to the rest of the world and especially in relation to the United States,
but as we will focus mainly on the US, you can still get an idea about what
public diplomacy is, and how countries use or not use it. This means that
public diplomacy also helps correct false images and other negative views there
might be, again depending on the country, as mentioned above, as North Korea
has a different policy. Most other countries, including the United States will
mostly focus on creating a positive view of themselves to the rest of the
world, this includes removing any negative views there might be, of course the
USA will have its wars which are not going to be seen as positive in regards to
certain countries, however this is something that is can always have an effect
on a country´s image. Other factors that public diplomacy includes are hoping
for more foreign investment from businesses, etc., hoping to spur up the
economy for example through visiting tourists and educating about its culture.
It is also to create a deeper understanding of each other’s cultures and build
connections and relationships with each other. As a whole, governments not only
interact with other governments, but also educational institutions, citizens of
each country, etc. for example by giving other countries a foreign library or
an exhibit explaining more about the culture of the country, other media
outlets that can be use are the World Wide Web for example.

2. Understanding Public Diplomacy

In this essay we
will take a closer look at public diplomacy of the United States, specifically,
the history of US public diplomacy starting with the founding fathers and how
the United States was formed. Then we will look at examples of current and recent
public diplomacy issues and events that have shaped US image around the world
especially regarding the middle east and the Islamic world. In addition, with
the “decline” of the US economy and the rise of the Chinese economy, we will
also look at US-China relations and how public diplomacy is used. Lastly, we
will take a look at US outreach activities that engage foreign countries in US
culture and bring other countries closer to the US, American culture and the
American way of life. The first question to ask is, what is a Public Diplomacy?
Looking at the dictionary definition of public policy according to Merriam
Webster it´s “the policy of a sovereign state in its interaction with other
sovereign states” (Merriam Webster) or “a government strategy in dealing with
other nations”, what is important is that one should not forget that mostly the
state or nation is still dealing with self-interest, meaning that even if the
cooperation happens, governments will still protect their own interest.

1. Introduction