“When … in the mid-1990s, giving up to 90%

“When cochlear implants first emerged on the scene, many in
the deaf community reacted negatively, fearing an assault on their beloved
culture (Christiansen & Leigh, 2000/2005)”, (Leigh & Andrews, 2017, p.28). According to Marschark and
Spencer “Cochlear Implants (CIs) are biomedical prostheses, which are approved
and regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), that provide deaf
individuals with access to sound via electric stimulating the surviving spiral
ganglion cells in the auditory nerve (Cosetti & Waltzman, 2012)” (p. 264). “Cochlear implants first
became available on the National Health Service in the 1980s … early devices
gave 15–35% word or sentence understanding. Cochlear implants and their coding
strategies have been continually developed … in the mid-1990s, giving up to 90%
understanding of words or sentences” (Bond et al., 2009, p.6). The invention of CIs goes
back to almost two centuries ago by Alessandro Volta an Italian scientist, who
also develop battery “unit volta” (Zeng, 2004, p.2).


As Zeng describe,

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“. . . at the moment when the
circuit was completed, I received a shock in the head, and some moments after I
began to hear a sound, or rather noise in the ears, which I cannot well define:
it was a kind of crackling with shocks, as if some paste or tenacious matter
had been boiling . . . The disagreeable sensation, which I believe might be
dangerous because of the shock in the brain, prevented me from repeating this experiment
. . .” (Zeng, 2004, p.2)


Until the emerge of modern technology for 150 years there
were no report of safe and effective stimulation on hearing “(Stevens, 1937;
Stevens and Jones, 1939; Jones et al., 1940)”, (Zeng, 2004, p.3). Data from a number of studies
are presented by U.S. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication
Disorders (NIDCD) indicates that more than 300,000 cochlear implants implanted worldwide
(Leigh & Andrews, 2017, p.20), 58,000 in adults and 38,000
in children in U.S. (Blackwell et al. 2014, n.p). Wilson and Dorman (2008), Cochlear implants is
greatest achievement of modern medicine.



Three out of every one thousand children in the United
States are born with hearing loss in both ears (Vohr,
2003, p.62),
according to Balknay (1996) most of deaf children born to a hearing family. where
in adults aged 20-69 hearing loss due to exposure to loud noise at working
environment, only 5.5% of this group of hearing loss are associated with aging (Blackwell, Lucas, & Clarke, 2014, p.6), “There are few studies of
the ways in which Deaf people interact with majority society, either
individually or collectively” (Ladd, 2003, p.56-57). “A US cross-sectional study
of 178 adults … showed clinically elevated levels of depressed mood …
significant social isolation on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI)” (Bond et al., 2009, p.3).


 “Not that long ago, a
child born with hearing loss faced a lifetime of almost certain problems
arising from deficits in spoken language abilities” (Eisenberg et al. 1983, n.p), Studies conducted to adopt
cochlear implantation (Cooper, 2007, n.p), scientific research emphasize
on medical expansion of cochlear implants in relation with hardware and
software for the device (Cooper & Craddock, 2006), in practice (Graham, 2003, n.p), to improve audiological and
neurological effect of these devices and create sound with minimal noise (Nittrouer & Chapman, 2009, p.194-200). Loizou (1999). “Cochlear
implants have been very successful in restoring partial hearing to profoundly
deaf people”, most of deaf people with CIs are able to talk over the phone and
communicate without lip-reading, or using sign language, children with CIs are
able to attend normal school and learn the spoken languages. Two groups of deaf
people got the most benefits of CIs, those who already learnt language before
hearing loss and those who had partial deafness (“Quick
Statistics About Hearing,” 2015). CIs provides most effective
neural prostheses to deaf people to recognize the speech (Marschark & Spencer, 2016, p.359), and focuses on (Barker et al. 1995), demonstration and better perception
of language “than in those with equivalent unaided hearing levels who were
using hearing aids (Dawson et al. 1995; kirk, 2000; Tomblin et al. 1999)” (Marschark & Spencer, 2016, p.113).




“There is no doubt that cochlear implants have improved the
spoken language abilities of children with hearing loss, but delays persist” (Nittrouer & Chapman, 2009, p.190),

Recent studies suggest using Cochlear Implants in both ears
improves speech clearness and reduces noise considerably (van Hoesel, 2004), Implantation only on one ear
could be challenging, because when we receive the sound our brain reacts as a
barrier for the coming sound, a Bilateral cochlear implants is the solution ,
where it provides a 360 degree hearing possibility (Peters, 2007), the high volume of noise produced
from CIs, makes it uncomfortable, not all deaf persons perceiving a positive effect;
certain hearing loss people reject to use CIs (Marschark & Spencer, 2016, p.113-116). Adults aged 69 and above who
are deaf, could benefits form hearing device, less than 30% of them are using
hearing aids but among those who are aged 20 to 69 this number is declining to
16% (“Quick
Statistics About Hearing,” 2015, n.p), the problem arises from the
device is not the only issue, as Sparrow (2010) describe, CIs intends to eliminate
the communication barriers between deaf community from rest of people in
society. Imagine that your part of a minority community and not too long ago
your community had been prevented, discriminated and tortured in the past …. using
their own language (sign language) but they were still proud (Sparrow, 2010:
p456).  Due to expansion of ASL even
between hearing people and negative impacts raises from using Implants aids “deaf
people may demonstrate high proficiency in both American sign language (ASL)
and English” (Parasnis, 1996, p.117)