What is the primary objective of punishment? Toserve as a deterrant to both the larger public and to the offender. Arguebalythe system aims to push their behavioural pattern from the wrong side to livinga life on the right side of the law by cultivating a fear psychosis.
The concept of prison dates all the way back tothe conception of states. In order to conceive a state certain laws had to belaid down in the form of legal codes. The most prominent of these early legalcodes is the Code of Hammurabi,written in Babylon around1770 BC.
The penalties for violations of the laws in code were almost allcentered on the concept of retaliation, whereby the perpetrators were oftenpunished by the victims themselves. Ancient Greek philosophers, such asPlato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to rehabilitate offendersinstead of simply using it as a conduit for the victims to channel their angerand extract revenge. The victims weren’t the only ones affected by the actionsof the criminals, society as a whole was.The main aim of prisons , ever since theirestablishment , was punishment. What did they seek to achieve by using thesepunitive measures? A sense of regret and remorse in the perpetrator, so theywould not commit such an act or acts again and to deter anyone who wanted tocommit a criminal offence. Prisons have four main aims : protection of the public by removal ofthe offender from society, so they no longer pose a threat to the generalpublic (incapacitation) .To punish the offender for not abiding by the law andcausing harm to other individuals.
To serve as a deterrent to the offender andto other individuals . To rehabilitate the offender. Punishment is normallymeted out based on the severity of the crime A major problemsfaced by prison systems, or any institution that deals with offenders isrecidivism , which is a persons relapse into criminal behavior after the personhas received intervention after a previous crime. Recidivism is what criminalcorrectional institutions are fighting to abolish the world over. Let us takeNigeria for example. A study in 2009 reported that 81% of male criminal offendersand 45% of female criminal offenders were rearrested within 36 months ofdischarge from prison.When prisoners arereleased they are not prepared to deal with the outside world.
A typicaloffender leaves prison without any savings, and very few employmentopportunities, as not very many institutions hire convicted criminals. A majority of prisoners function on levels oflow literacy , many are unable to fill out a job application, read a busschedule, or calculate a price discount. This also plays a major role in themnot being able to hold steady jobs for extended periods of time, or any jobs atall, leading to offenders falling back into their life of crime in order tosurvive. Longer prison sentences are also not a very effective deterrent. Evidences of rehabilitative action were seen aslate as the nineteenth century in dispersed places like Australia, Unitedstates of America, specifically Colorado and the united kingdom. Earlyrehabilitative activities where centered around understanding why criminalscommitted offences and only about unearthing psychological ailments. Ratherthan any “rehabilitative” action, however as the body of information from theefforts grew, the paradigm shifted towards effective utilization of the prisoners’time , Instead of keeping them in traditional cells and solitary confinement,idle all day .
utilization of their time in such a way , which is beneficial tothem and the rest of society, while they are in society and up skilling themwith the capacity to deal with society (restorative justice) and life outsideprison to help secure stable jobs and lives , thus reducing recidivism rates. Many prisons across the world are givingrehabilitation utmost importance with their contemporary and open minded prisonpolicies.giving the prisoners employment is also rehabilitation as they will betaught how to hold a job once they are released.
Prisoners at Mekelle Prison, in northern Ethiopia, areprovided with microfinance and insurance loans to start cooperatives based onbusiness ideas nurtured in educational and vocational classes offered whilethey were behind bars. The prison has supported 31 different co-operations inconstruction, textiles, and agriculture. “I have been amazed to discoverhow prison life is like a university,” said a 23-year-old prisoner, AlmazGebriel. “I have earned certificates in plumbing, woodwork, pig rearing, andbeauty salon training. The cooperative experience has allowed me to earn anincome while in prison.” Classes like these benefit not only the prisonersthemselves, but the economy and the society as a whole.
In Slovenia prisonersare allowed to hold jobs during the week, outside of prison and return for theweekend, there are various factors which determine the eligibility of aprisoner to do so, mainly his or her behavior in prison.Uruguay’s National Rehabilitation Center,outside Montevideo, boasts extremely low recidivism rates , around 10 to 12 %,drastically contrasting the national average at 60%. Facilities offered here areclasses which range from plumbing to mechanics to gardening. The IndiraGandhi National Open university set up 94 study centers in prisons across india, in different jails like Madurai and Tiruchi.As of May 2015, 25,000 prisonershad participated in these programs.
AS: , giAve areaction of a prisoner from a traditional prison. Suomenlinna island inHelsinki,finland , is home to the suomenlinna “open” prison , established in 1971. Everyday 95 male prisoners maketheir way to the mainland to work or study and some to do the towns general maintenance. the prison has a range of facilities ranging from televisons, table tennistables and steel darts, cases of violence are extremely rare , the gaurds do notcarry batons or pepper spray. the inmates are constantly monitored usingsurvelince cameras and other equipment.
A common practice in Scandanavianprisons is for each prisoner to have a “contact officer” , who guides andrehabilitates the prisoner and acts like his or her personal councilor. Thispractice was enforced to help protect the correctional officers,.across theworld correctional officers are plagued with a range of ailments like stress,hypertension , alcoholism, etc , which is a result of serving a purely punitivefunction. This system benefits both prisoner and correctional officer, but itdoes have it’s limitations. All these methods only work in prisons with a verylow number of inmates.
The total number of prisoners in finland is 3174*. TheRikers Island prison in New York has a total inmate population of around10,000, equal to the combined prison populations of Sweden, Norway and Finland, all in one facility !p First level ofrehabilitation: upskill them in vocational and reading and writing skills.Provide employment which wil (1) keep them busy, thus keep them gainfully busy,mentally and also enable them to create savings for themselves. When they leaveprison they have a small corpus to keep them afloat, a set of skills with whichto sustain themselves. In traditionalprisons, violence levels higher? Secondlevel ofrehabilitation: Some prisons in India and the US, even going so far as to teachprisoners transidental meditation. Give result from a prisoner. Prison is also an extremely violent environment forindividuals to be in , Prison assaults and incidents ofself-harm rose more than 70% from 2013 to 2016 and the number of suicidesdoubled in the last four years.