Weare in a global crisis; the world is dying more rapidly of Chronic Diseasesthan ever before. Cardiovascular disease is among one of the leading killersacross the world, and it is actually preventable. Although, Three-quarters ofdeaths due to cardiovascular diseases could be prevented with minimal changesin lifestyle, including increased daily physical activity. Physical activityalso plays an important role in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseasesby reducing the impact of the disease, slowing its progress and preventingrecurrence.
(Alves, 2016) Heart disease is still considered a disease thataffects men, although every year since 1984, it has affected more women thanmen in the United States. In 2004, approximately 500,000 women died ofcardiovascular disease (CVD), making it the leading cause of death for women inthis country. (Folta, 2008) Yet, Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is theleading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Accordingto the American Heart Association (AHA), by the year 2030, the prevalence ofcardiovascular disease is expected to increase by 9.9%, and the prevalence ofheart failure and stroke are expected to increase by approximately 25%.(Agarwal, 2012) Despitethe benefits of regular activity, only 31% of adults in the United Statesreport achieving the recommended amounts of physical activity (i.
e., 30 minutesof moderate-intensity activity 5 or more days per week or 20 minutes ofvigorous-intensity activity 3 or more days per week), and 38% report noleisure-time regular physical activity (Schoenborn, 1998) But most people inthe US, do not receive the amount of physical activity needed to maintain ahealthy lifestyle. Inactivity ora sedentary lifestyle is associated with increased cardiovascular events andpremature death.
(Held, 2012) Sedentary behavior is measured by screen time, andhas been associated with adverse cardiovascular health, increased obesity,diabetes, cancer, and early death. (Wijndaele, 2011) Exercise isn’t justexcellent for reducing the risks of CVD, but regular physicalactivity helps reduce several cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolicsyndrome, anddiabetes. Amongpatients with recognized coronary disease, regular physical activity has alsobeen found to help improve pain-free activity, prevent heart attacks, and result indiminished death rates. (Agarwal, 2012) Even with this knowledge readily available to the generalpublic, as well as being a well-known fact, people still do not receive theproper amount of physical activity or proper nutrition that one needs to live aheart health life. Activity levels are even lower among people with disability;for example, Healthy People 2010 reports that 56% ofpeople with disability reported no leisure-time physical activity, comparedwith 36% of people without disability, and rates of involvement in regularmoderate and brisk physical activity are also lower for people with disability(US Department of Health, 2010) Amongthe usual cardiovascular risk factors, diet poses a particular challenge forresearch. Total calorie intake increases as countries develop.
With regard tonutrition, you need to lower your intake of complex carbohydrates, increaseplant based food, and have an all-around well balanced diet to further preventrisk factors of CVD. (Amani, 2010) Havingproper nutrition immediately aids your body’s overall health and wellness, bydecreasing fat and increasing metabolism. Lowering weight alone, lowers yourchances for getting CVD.
Physicalactivity among adults without disability are well-known and consistent acrossmany studies; they include sex, age, income, race, education, obesity, andgeneral health status. There has been less research on the correlates ofphysical activity for adults with disability. Disability has often beenincluded as one item on a list of barriers to physical activity, oftenaddressed within an item asking about injury or disability or as a barrier or link,such as arthritis, obesity, and asthma.
(Boslaugh, 2006) There have also beenstudies on activity levels of people with medical conditions that can bedisabling, such as arthritis (CDC, 1997) These conditions increase your chanceof being overweight, having lower muscle mass, and increasing your risk of CVD.Having an inactive lifestyle greatly increases your chance of having CVD bylowering you VO2 max output, cardiac output, weaker muscles and bones, lowermineral content, and increase in fat content. Having more fat alone, causesfatty deposits on your heart and blood vessels. This decreases your blood flowand puts you at risk for clogged arteries or heart attack.
Once a person has amyocardial infarction, they then become at an even higher risk for gaining CVD. Theterms ‘physical activity’ and ‘exercise’ are often used interchangeably in theliterature. However, it is suggested that the two terms indicate two differentconcepts.
‘Physical activity’ refers to any bodily movement produced by skeletalmuscles that results in a use of energy, and includes a broad range ofoccupational, leisure and daily activities. ‘Exercise’ instead refers toplanned or structured physical activity, performed for a reason, which can beaerobic exercise, resistance training or combined aerobic and resistancetraining. (Mann, 2014) Exercisecan not only maintain the cardiorespiratory health, but it can keep your bodystrong and healthy. Muscle mass can be increased by training at an intensitycorresponding to 60% to 85% of the individual’s maximum strength capacity.
Based on the findings the recommended amount of resistance training is 3 to 4 timesweekly. (Mayer, 2011) On the other hand, health benefits of adequatephysical activities like walking, swimming, cycling, or stair climbing are familiar.Regular exercise has been shown to reduce type 2 diabetes, some cancers, falls,osteoporotic fractures, and depression. There are improvements in cognitive function,better quality of life, and decrease mortality rates, as well as improvementsin weight management and physical functioning. (Agarwal, 2012) Clinicalexercise testing can be used to measure the presence or severity of the disease,to measure functional capacity and to enhance the effectiveness of exerciseinterventions and proper medical therapies. One of the most common reasons forclinical exercise testing is cardiovascular or pulmonary disease (Anderson,1999)Exerciseis a primary, secondary, and tertiary preventer of disease are as follows: 1)Primary prevention (direct treatment of cause to prevent disease occurrence) isvoluntary prevention of physical inactivity or treatment of physical inactivitywith physical activity; 2) Secondary treatment eliminating one cause (physicalinactivity) of existing hypertension by removing physical inactivity istreatment of existing hypertension with physical activity; and 3) Tertiaryprevention with physical activity is cardiac rehabilitation where exercisebenefits do not reverse the anatomical pathology from myocardial infarction. (Booth, 2012) Thereare three types of exercise; Cardio, Resistance, and Mixed training.
Thesetypes are very effective on reducing CVD. Mild to moderate resistancetraining may be achieved by weight lifting or other resistance exercisesinvolving the major muscle groups. They recommend that 8–10 exercises beperformed on two non-consecutive days of the week, with 8–12 repetitions ofeach exercise. These provide an effective method for improving muscularstrength and endurance, diminishing the rate-pressure product and improvingcoronary risk factors. (Pollock, 2000) A fully cardiovascular workoutrecommends that you retain 150 minutes of moderate exercise a week to obtainoptimal health. A mixed methods program would consist of a12-week training program with combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for30 min, five days/week resulted in enhancements in the cardiovascular riskprofile in overweight and obese participants compared to no exercise. From ourobservations, combination exercise gave greater benefits for weight loss, fatloss and cardio-respiratory fitness than aerobic and resistance trainingmethods. Combination exercise training should be recommended for overweight andobese adults in National Physical Activity Guidelines.
(Ho, 2012) CVD has risk factors that aremostly caused by inactivity. Regular and adequate levels of physical activityin adults can reduce the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke,diabetes, and can help maintain a healthy weight. Yoga, and ancient practicefrom India that incorporates physical, mental, and spiritual elements, may bean effective form of physical activity. (Chu,n.
d.) Yoga can ease your mind and soul, and can really benefit your health toincrease your body’s muscle and align your chi. While exercisingcan benefit the reduced effects of CVD, it can also combat the effects ofaging. Aging skeletal muscle experiences fiber loss more severely inthe high threshold Type II fast twitch motor units. An age related decrease inmuscle cells by age 70 is specific to Type II fibers.
Thus, anaerobic capacityand high intensity physical activity requiring hard and fast movements isdiminished, contributing to impaired performance in tasks required for activitiesof daily living (ADL) and increased fall risk in seniors. Advanced ages reducespeed of propagation of action potentials and muscle contraction. This agerelated limitations can be mitigated by exercise and physical activity.Numerous studies demonstrate resistance training can increase muscle mass andstrength in seniors.
(Sumachi, 2013) Inconclusion, I feel that exercise can greatly improve your overall health andreduce your risks for CVD. Although there are many different exercise types outthere, there are certain steps you can take to ensure you are getting the mostof your workout. The American College of Sports Medicine statesthat, “improvement will be similar for activities performed at a lowerintensity-longer duration compared with higher intensity-shorter duration ifthe total energy cost of activities is similar.” (Donovan, 2005) You can work on yourflexibility and range of motion to better improve your posture and overallbody’s strength to benefit your workout the most. Since