behavior is one of the biggest and most dangerous vices of modern society.
There are many different types of crimes, and all of them requires different
approaches to rehabilitate and punish the offender. It is interesting that both
10$ theft and international terrorist act are considered to be crimes, but
without any doubt, their damage levels are radically different. If the 10$
theft in a local supermarket could affect only the business owner and have a minimal negative impact, the international
terrorist act could have a tremendous effect,
causing international diplomatic conflicts, international wars, and seriously change
in global society. In modern condition, terrorist acts became the most frequent
examples of transnational crimes, because in most occasions the terroristic
acts are performed in other countries than the offender’s origin to prove
certain political or religious ideas or punish certain society.
In general, it is considered that Modern War against
terrorism started just after the 911 attack on World Trade Center in New York,
and Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. These attacks provided by members of
Al-Qaeda shocked entire American nation and forced the beginning of global War
Against Terrorism. Despite the tremendous effect of this 2001 attacks, it is
interesting to notice that they were not the first terroristic acts conducted
at the World Trade Center. In 1993, the
international group of terrorist, tried to attack the World Trade Center with a
massive explosion that according to CBS
News (2013), killed six people and injured more than 1000 people that day. Only
six attackers had been caught, and the United
States started the trial against them. Mohammed A. Salameh from
Palestine was one of the key persons in that attack, so this trial was rather
important and from the modern standpoint,
it was one of the first cases and trials in the United States against a
terrorist or group of terrorist.
Before providing the analysis of this case and its
relevance for entire juridical history, it is important to notice that in
2000’s American legal system faced different crimes, but terroristic act was something new for entire society and legal system, so this case
become the example of transnational crimes conducted as a terroristic act.
According to the case details (1994), Mohammed A. Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Mahmud
Abouhalima, and Ahmad Mohammad Ajaj (collectively the “defendants”)
were convicted for committing various criminal acts having to do with the
bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993.
After the investigation, the United States Attorney General asked for
the custody for a period not to exceed
240 years for each of defendant. The US District Court for the Southern
District of New York enacted such ruling, but several appellations occurred in
a next few years, where defendants declared that primary ruling violated their
laws and First Amendment to the US Constitution.
Such legal precedent raised due to innovative nature of
such trials against the terrorists or group of terrorist. The United States of
American never faced such hidden and dangerous
threat before, so even the best American judges struggled to deal with this case.
Nowadays, 24 years after the A. Salameh et al. bombing of World Trade Center,
the terrorism become a real vice of 21st century, when none of us
could be 100 % secure. In addition, it is important to notice that according to
Silber (2011), the 1993 Attack was a first predecessor of 911 attack. In
general, both of the attacks were committed by radically minded religious
Arabs, who were sponsored and supported by Al-Qaeda founders and leaders. From
the law-enforcement agencies standpoint, US government ignored the possibility
of future terrorist acts, but from a legal point of view, the United States v.
A. Salameh et al. criminal case become the first example of transnational crime
cases based on terroristic attacks.