Under racism, we can see group of people beliefs, socialrelations, and social structure that show one group superiority, power, andprivilege for some, discrimination of the minority of the communities. Based onthe text book of introduction of sociology, sociological definition of racism is”the attribution of characteristics of superiority to a population sharingcertain physically inherited characteristics. Racism one specific form ofprejudice, focusing of variation among people. Racist attitudes become entrenched during the period of western colonialexpansion, but seem also to rest on mechanisms of prejudice and discriminationfound in human societies today”. (Giddens, p315).
Sociologistshave tried to interpret the relationships among different racial groups thoughdifferent theoretical perspectives, and social psychological perspective is oneof the major theoretical lenses. Social psychologistshave been trying to analysis the impact of prejudice, stereotypes ordiscrimination on some sort of society group. In1986, the two sociopsychologists, Ogbu John and Fordham Stgnithia argue that thenegative effect of racism on academic achievement and intellectual developmenton racially minority group (Giddens 318). In other words, black students arenot competitive in their school life because if they compute academically inschool, they think themselves like “acting white”, then black students’underperformances have negative percussion on their socio economics states.
forexample, black society get low wage and they work in bad working condition themajority group of society. Conflict theory is another perspective of inequalityrace and ethnicity. In America history, racial and ethnic minorities have beenstruggling their socio economic and political quality against dominant groupbecause the minorities are not exercise and practice their eco-political right. For example, even though Vivien Thomas (1910-1985)was very talented African American surgical technician who innovated new techniquefor medical technology, he was working as a janitor with low wage for several years(“theories of race and ethnicities”). Based on social psychological theories’Ogbu John and Fordham Stgnithia tried to elaborate the negative outcome ofracial inequality on black students’ academic performance.
In 1986 SignithiaFordham co-authored, along with Ogbu tried to study educational performance ofblack students in Washington, D.C, but most students’ performance was too lowas compere to the dominant group. (“John Ogbu”).