Title: or disprove that children in low income families

Title: ADHD





India Fatima Perkins

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Drena Poitier

Quaila Williams

Ayanna Farquharson

Tia Collins

Hypothesis: Children
in lower class homes are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.

in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study


      My article outlined a study that was
completed on attention deficit hyperactivity disease. A population based cohort
study was completed starting 2002 to 2013 in the United States, United Kingdom
and Korea. The data collected was from the insurance cohort database in the
various countries. The study was to prove or disprove that children in low
income families are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHA. The results provided
proof that the risk of having ADHA was highest for low income and mid low
income families, which is consistent with previous investigations. In
conclusion there is no single risk factor to explain the development of ADHA
but controversially genetic, social and environmental factors can contribute
along with socioeconomically disadvantages.


      This research study article elaborates on
adult behaviors that were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder when they were adolescents and their children that posse the common
factors of them when they were kids. Has this disorder been passed down
generically through chromosomes? So, a test study has been done on 84 adults
and does not disclose the genders, race, religion, lifestyles or backgrounds.
The article does confirm that ” the familial nature of adult syndrome has
not been well investigated”(James & Russel, 2004). Common factors were
taken in to consideration such as the school history in the adult and their
child. The results in this study project have never been confirmed.

Children from Lower class
families are more likely to be diagnosed with “ADHD”

In most homes today,
families that are experiencing a child that is like an energy drink or a roller
coaster 24 hour of the day, may become to think that their child has a behavior
problem or even see common factors in their child that they had when they were
children too such as being hyper or short attention span and may feel that
their child may need special therapy or even be evaluated by a doctor for
further treatment. ” One approach to evaluate the familial nature of adult
ADHD is thought a high-risk design aimed at estimating the risk for the
disorder in children of parents with childhood onset ADHD (James& Russel,
2005). This is the research of 84 adults with prior diagnosed of having ADHD in
childhood and their children having it starting in their early adolescents. The
information for the research study came from a school for school age children
that have disorders such as schizophrenia or any disorder that affects. There
was also some past information taken from the school history of prior siblings
of children with ADHD and parents with ADHD as adolescents and it being tied to
their children having ADHD through further hypothesis in the future.”
Reports of repeated grades, placement in special classes and tutoring” was
taken in to consideration (James & Russel, 2005). Results “of the 84
children at risk was 48 (57%) met criteria for ADHD. The rate of the disorder
in children of adults with the disorder was significantly higher than the
previously reported rate of ADHD among siblings of children with the disorder.
Of the 48 ADHD children of parents with the disorder 36 (75%) were treated for
it. School failure rates were almost the same as those previously reported in a
group of referred children and adolescents” (James & Russel, 2005).
This study “suggests that 84 referred adults with clinical diagnoses of
childhood onset of the disorder” (James & Russel, 2005). This study
seemed to have a great concept to it but the fact that the study was done
through prior viewed interviews and information about the children’s and
boring. The producer should have done an actual research it would have showed
better sportsmanship and a much more interesting journal to read. This journal
has a good concept but the testing is just not efficient for me.

B., Damiani-Taraba, G., Koster, A., Campbell, J., & Scholz, C. (2015).
Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) in children
involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines
acceptable for vulnerable populations?. Child: Care, Health & Development,
41(2), 178-185. doi:10.1111/cch.12168

      In this article, the Cochrane and
Campbell collaboration found that kids in foster care get more treatment for
ADHD than kids in the regular community. 
There was a two-year study from 2005- 2007 that showed a significant
increase in the diagnosis of ADHD. Children involved in the system have
insurance that pays for their healthcare needs which gives them more access to
get medication. ADHD is considered to not be based on categorical diagnosis.
The symptoms can be related to other know behavior disorders which may have the
same symptoms. Over a ten-week study before the diagnosis can be made, you must
monitor a child in different settings before making a conclusion. Decisions are
not only made by pediatricians but by a team of specialists. The team gives an
assessment and evaluates then determines if a care plan is needed. Due to the
harmful effects of misdiagnosing and long periods of medications. These
guidelines are put into place to help prevent vulnerable children from being

A. E., Ford, T., & Russell, G. (2015). Socioeconomic Associations with
ADHD: Findings from a Mediation Analysis. Retrieved December 01, 2017, from

      Children from burdened financial
foundations are at more serious danger of a scope of negative results for the
duration of their life course than their companions; however the particular
instruments by which financial status identifies with various wellbeing results
in youth are up ’til now hazy. Financial drawback, conceptualized as announced
trouble in managing essential necessities (heating, food) has both immediate
and roundabout effects on a youngster’s danger of ADHD. Lower levels of parent
inclusion intervenes this relationship, as does nearness of affliction; with
kids presented to misfortune and those with less included guardians being at an
expanded danger of having ADHD. This investigation features the significance of
home and ecological factors as little however essential givers toward the
etiology of ADHD.

C., & Dixon, A. L. (2009). Low-income African American Male Youth with ADHD
Symptoms in the United States: Recommendations for Clinical Mental Health
Counselors. Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 31(4), 309-322

      In this article it
talks about ADHD diagnosis occurring within the homes of African Americans
living in poverty. It is hard for these individuals to get the mental health
treatment services even though they are majority of the referred. In the
article, light is shed upon these individuals suffering with ADHD. It also
gives some tips to come to some type of solution. There are counselors and
mental health agencies that are not fully equipped to provide the proper
treatment. Since 2006,
there were 4.5 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 who had been
diagnosed with ADHD and the number continues to increase yearly.  


we chose this topic:

            We chose this hypothesis related to children with
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to prove or disprove the information Quaila
was provided as a mother. She has a 6 year old daughter who was diagnosed with
ADHA at the age of 4. As a new mom she assumed her child was acting how
children should act. However, when she started school she had trouble staying
focused on the lessons being taught, and she struggled to sit in class without
moving around or fidgeting. She read everything she could about ADHD. It was a surprise
for her to learn that ADHD affects so many children. Yet even as she learned
more about the disease, she still has a hard time understanding what she is
going through. As a group, this subject has touched us. We were curious to
learn a little more on this topic.


Barkley, A. Russel,
(2005). “Diagnostic Controversies in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactive
Disorder”. American Jornal Of Psycology, 116:11, 1948- 1956.Mcgough J.
James, (2005). “Diagnostic Controversies in Adult Attention Deficit
Hyperactive Disorder”. American Jornal of Psycology, 116:11, 1948- 1956.