There shown in DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). When

There have been
many different ideas in the provided literature about what has a positive outcome
for children who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
An example of something that proven by research should have a positive outcome
is shown by the results of the research done by Chaimaha, Sriphetcharawut,
Lersilp and Chinchai (2017). In this research a number of children suffering
from ADHD are given executive function training for a few weeks. With use of a
pre- and post test, it is shown that this received training causes significant
improvements for working memory, planning and self-monitoring. However, as said
before there are numerous ideas about what could be good for a child with ADHD.

Another research
is the one done by Gershy, Meehan, Omer, Papouchis and Schorr Sapir (2017).
With using a mindfulness skills training the researchers caused a significant
result to occur, parental emotion regulation was improved and hostile and
coercive parenting was reduced. This, according to the previously named
research, has a positive effect on children with ADHD.

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            For people who suffer from ADHD or their family members it
can be hard to decide what method of helping both of them would be best in
their specific situation. Since there are so many significantly proven methods,
it can be hard for those people to decide which method fits best for them
without the help of specialists. But before we start discussing which method
could be best, it is important to know what ADHD precisely is.

            ADHD is described by Thapar and Cooper (2016) as “a
childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by developmentally
inappropriate and impairing inattention, motor hyperactivity, and impulsivity,
with difficulties often continuing into adulthood” (p. 1240). We agree with
this definition, hence the fact it provides all the known aspects of ADHD shown
in DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). When trying to raise a child
with ADHD, it can be difficult to decide which way is best to do so.

When taking care
of a child as a parent, there are different parenting styles to be used. In
general, there are four parenting styles defined; authoritarian, authoritative,
permissive and rejecting-neglecting parenting (Baumrind, 1971; Smetana, 1995).
A permissive parenting style is characterised by a tolerant and accepting
attitude, punishment is used as little as possible and the children get a lot
of freedom to do what they want (Baumrind, 1971). A rejecting-neglecting
parenting style is characterised by parents who do not act interested in their
children, they are not strict and neither are they attentively. They don’t pay
attention to their child in whatsoever way, not positive nor negative (Smetana,
1995).

However, in this
research we focus more on the other two parenting styles, authoritarian and
authoritative parenting. The key concepts to describe authoritarian parenting
are parents who demand a lot from their children, but they do not respond much
to what their child does (Baumrind, 1971). An authoritative parenting style is
slightly different, the similarity with an authoritarian parenting style is
that with an authoritative one, the parent is also high in demanding, but the
difference is that in this parenting style the parent is also high in
responsiveness (Smetana, 1995).

Even though
these two parenting styles are similar in some aspects, using the one or the
other causes a severely different development of the child. It seems to be that
parenting styles have a huge influence on the development of the child (McAdams
et al., 2014). Because of this, it could be so when changing the used parenting
style, the development of the child will also differ. Which parenting style
then has a positive influence on the development of the child and which one has
a negative influence is the main question of this review article.

As stated in
several researches, the surroundings of a child with ADHD can determine the way
they develop (Çöp, Çengel Kültur, & ?enses Dinç, 2017). But the question
remains which specific way of nurturing the child with ADHD would be best,
which parenting style fits best for that child and which parenting style
provides the most optimal development for that child.

When these
questions are being answered, we might be able to provide recommendations for
parents with children who suffer from ADHD. This could help the child achieve
his most optimal development. It might also help the parents with achieving the
most comfortable way of parenting, so that there are as minimal conflicts as
possible caused by ADHD between the parents and the child. The ultimate goal
could be to provide such advice that the symptoms of ADHD can be reduced so
that the child has less trouble with developing in the most optimal way.

Therefore, the
main question of this review article is which parenting styles, authoritative
or authoritarian, provides the most optimal development for a child with Attention Development Hyperactivity Disorder. The goal
is to combine previously done researches so we can deepen the knowledge on this
certain topic.

In order to
answer the main question in this review article, we will first review the
problems that often occur when raising a child in general. The next part will consist of the problems of raising a child with ADHD. The last part
will be divided into two parts; the pros and cons of an authoritative parenting
style for a child with and without ADHD, and the pros and cons of an
authoritarian parenting style for a child with and without ADHD.

 

Core

When raising a child, there
will always be a numerous amount of problems that occur. Small problems or
questions of little importance like which clothes you will let your child wear.
But also bigger problems of larger importance. Like the choice which school
fits best with your opinions of education for your child. However, there are
some determinants that can influence the amount of difficult behaviour that
will occur during the raising of the child. Several of these determinants were
found by Fox, Platz and Bentley (1995). In their research it was shown that
there is a negative relationship between bad nurturing and high discipline
evoked by the parents, and multiple traits of the parents: education level, maternal
age, family socioeconomic status, marital status, and number of children living
at home. This means that the child would show more difficult behaviour problems
when the parents had lower education attainment, were younger, had a lower income
level, were single, and had more than one child living at home.

            The rate of success with social relationships from a
child can be explained by looking at the way the parents nurtured their child
(Fan, 2010). The results of Fan’s research (2010) show that when a child is
shown enough attention, adaptability and creativity provided by the parents,
the child itself will also show these traits. Both Fan’s (2010) and Fox, Platz
and Bentley’s (1995) research, provide us the information to conclude that the
amount and the severity of problems that occur during the child rearing are
caused by the choices the parents make on how to raise their child.

            But when you are raising a child with ADHD, different
problems will occur. The previously named problems still exist, but because of
the disorder there are more difficulties. Because of the ADHD, which is
genetically influenced, the children have a higher temperament which causes
maternal hostility according to the results of the research done by Harold et
al. (2013). This maternal hostility in turn, causes worse ADHD symptoms (Harold
et al., 2013). From this we can conclude that some of the problems that occur
with children with ADHD are different than the problems that occur with
children without this disorder. So there is need for research on these specific
problems, hence the fact that the solutions for children without the disorder
will not work for children with ADHD.

            One of the problems that arises for a child with ADHD is
a worse attention span, which causes problems with attending school (Greven,
Kovas, Willcutt, Petrill, & Plomin, 2013). One of the problems is homework
performance. The study done by Booster, Mautone, Nissley-Tsiopinis, Van Dyke
and Power (2016) shows us that there is a relation between the amount of
negative parenting and homework performance. By using a pre- and post test with
a family-school intervention in between, the data provides a significant result
for bettering homework performance. This means that homework performance will
get better when negative parenting is reduced. Which in turn gives us proof for
the thesis that the used parenting style is of great importance in the
development of the child with ADHD.

            Another problem with parenting caused by the disorder
ADHD is the amount of parenting stress. In the study of Theule, Wiener, Tannock
and Jenkins (2010) a meta-analysis was done, and from this they concluded that
parents with children who have ADHD experience more parenting stress than
parents who have children without any disorder. They even found that the
severity of the disorder ADHD was a predictive factor to estimate the amount of
parenting stress, the higher the severity of ADHD, the higher the parenting
stress. All of these problems show us that there is need for research on the
problems that ADHD brings, to be able to draw conclusions hence the fact that
these problems are different from the problems that occur when raising a child
without this disorder.

            We want to compare the authoritative and the
authoritarian parenting style to conclude which one is better for a child with
ADHD. The advantage of an authoritative parenting style is, amongst other
things, that the child develops a better theory of mind understanding with this
style in comparison with all of the other parenting styles (O’Reilly &
Peterson, 2014). Another advantage is the high amount of behavioural control,
parental warmth and autonomy granting this parenting style brings with itself
(Pinquart, 2017). This shows us that there are none or only small disadvantages
of using this parenting style.

            However, the previous studies were all with children who
did not have ADHD. When we examine studies that do have children with ADHD, we
see that there are a lot of advantages, but also some disadvantages when using
the authoritative parenting style. In a study it was found that an authoritative
parenting style predicted a negative peer status (Hinshaw, Zupan, Simmel, Nigg,
& Melnick, 1997). But, numerous other studies suggest that an authoritative
parenting style is actually good to maintain when raising a child with ADHD.
One of these, is the study done by Alizadeh and Andries (2002), from the
results is concluded that there is a negative relationship between using an
authoritative style and having a child with ADHD. This means that the more a
parent uses this parenting style, the less likely a child is to have or develop
ADHD.

            The other parenting style we want to discuss is the
authoritarian parenting style. From the same research of O’Reilly and Peterson
(2014) as named previously was concluded that when maintaining an authoritarian
style, the theory of mind understanding developing will be worse than when
using any of the other three named parenting styles. Another study concluded
that there is a negative relationship between creativity and authoritarian
parenting (Miller, Lambert, & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). This means that when
a child is raised with this parenting style, his creativity will remain low or
will develop slower than usual. However, there are also advantages of using
this parenting style. When using the authoritarian parenting style, the child
will develop more performance orientation (Gafoor & Kurukkan, 2014). It
seems like there are more disadvantages than advantages for using the
authoritarian parenting style.

            But once again, these were studies that were done with
children who did not have ADHD. When we look at studies that combine an
authoritarian parenting style and children with ADHD, we can see that there are
a lot of disadvantages for using this parenting style. The previously named
study done by Alizadeh and Andries (2002) concludes for this parenting style
that there is a negative relationship with having a child with ADHD, which
means that the more this parenting style is used, the more likely a child is to
have or develop ADHD. Another study shows us that a maternal authoritarian
style in combination with hyperactivity caused by ADHD, has a negative
relationship with educational attainment (Flouri, 2007).

            It seems to be likely that the use of an authoritative
parenting style causes more positive outcomes for a child with ADHD than the
use of an authoritarian parenting style.

           

Discussion

The present study was meant
to investigate whether an authoritative or an authoritarian parenting style
would be better for a child diagnosed with ADHD. Concluding from the literature
research previously done and described, we can state for now that an
authoritative parenting style is the best to raise a child with ADHD.

These results
are in agreement to the earlier described study done by Flouri (2007), he conducted
the relationship between maternal authoritarian parenting and educational
attainment in the child’s adult life. Following from this research, it was
concluded there was a positive relationship between using a authoritarian
parenting style and educational attainment. The child’s educational attainment
was deemed higher in his later life when using an authoritarian parenting
style.

But we also
reviewed the study done by Gafoor and Kurukkan (2014), which showed us that
when maintaining an authoritarian parenting style, a child will develop better
performance orientation. This confines with our conclusion since this research
shows us that an authoritarian parenting style could be of good influence for
the further life and development of the child. But the results of this study
are barely significant and the population they used was from one school in
India. This makes the study somewhat unreliable and according to our findings,
this is but one study that contradicts our findings against many studies that
support our findings.

However, there
are some limitations in our performed research. Almost all of the presented
studies are maternal studies. This means that only one side of the parenting
style is examined without the paternal side taken into account. In the
interview that we have conducted, it appeared that the parenting styles of the
mother and father can differ. Hence the fact that maternal research only
examines half of the parental style used, it is hard to strongly conclude from
the presented studies that the authoritative parenting style should be
preferred over the authoritarian parenting style.

Following
logically from this, we could say that a possibility for further research could
be to re-enact these performed maternal researches with a paternal point of
view. Then it would be possible to compare the parents’ outcomes, which would
give us a better view on how paternal and maternal elements in the parenting
style play a role.

Another
limitation of this study has to do with the description of ADHD. We chose to
examine the disorder ADHD in the broadest way possible. There are namely three
subtypes of ADHD described in the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association,
2013): the inattentive type, the hyperactive/impulsive type and the combined
type. To improve our review, we could examine the previously named studies
while accounting for the three subtypes of ADHD. By doing this, we could
provide a more specific advice for parents about which parenting style to use
in combination with which subtype of ADHD their child is diagnosed with.

This research
can easily be broadened in some aspects. We could also take the research
performed on rejecting-neglecting and permissive parenting into account. By
doing this, we can produce a more complete database on this subject. We chose
to examine the authoritative and the authoritarian parenting style over the
other two parenting styles hence these two parenting styles are similar in most
aspects with a small difference in the amount of control and the amount of
possibility for discussion. The other two parenting styles, permissive and
rejecting-neglecting, are very different from each style which makes it easier
to compare them with the other styles. We wanted to show that even small
differences in a parenting style can cause severe differences in the
development of a child, which explains why we have chosen to examine the two
parenting styles that look most alike, authoritative and authoritarian. If we
could combine all four parenting styles in a review, we could provide a broadly
reasoned conclusion on which parenting style could be the best for a child with
ADHD.

Taken the
interview that we had with parents of a child with ADHD into account, it
appeared that different children with ADHD perhaps need different parenting
styles. This could be in agreement with the alleged three subtypes of ADHD
described by the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The interviewed
parents tried to raise their child maintaining the authoritarian parenting
style, as they were told that this style of parenting would be the best for
their child by doctors. Gradually they noticed their child was not listening
better when using this style, neither was he feeling any better. When they
decided to not listen to what they were told about parenting and to parent the
way they deemed necessary, they found that using the permissive parenting style
worked best for their child. They also told us about another couple that has a
child with ADHD, with whom the authoritarian parenting style did work.

This might be
another limitation of our study. All of the conclusions made in this review are
based on a data sample from which the mean is deemed best. This means all of
the extremes and outliers could be evening each other out, which shows the
result of an authoritative parenting style as the best one, even though it
apparently is different with each child. It could be that this review tries to
generalise the conclusion too much.

By performing a
lot of case studies, it could be reasoned whether the choice of parenting style
has to be differed with every child or that there actually is one parenting
style which is in general the best fit for every child
suffering from ADHD.

However, even
though there are some limitations for this performed review, this research does
give some evidence for maintaining an authoritative parenting style over an
authoritarian parenting style when raising a child with ADHD. Further research
is deemed necessary, but this research could be a good start to finding a more
complete answer.