There have beenmany different ideas in the provided literature about what has a positive outcomefor children who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).An example of something that proven by research should have a positive outcomeis shown by the results of the research done by Chaimaha, Sriphetcharawut,Lersilp and Chinchai (2017). In this research a number of children sufferingfrom ADHD are given executive function training for a few weeks.
With use of apre- and post test, it is shown that this received training causes significantimprovements for working memory, planning and self-monitoring. However, as saidbefore there are numerous ideas about what could be good for a child with ADHD.Another researchis the one done by Gershy, Meehan, Omer, Papouchis and Schorr Sapir (2017).With using a mindfulness skills training the researchers caused a significantresult to occur, parental emotion regulation was improved and hostile andcoercive parenting was reduced. This, according to the previously namedresearch, has a positive effect on children with ADHD. For people who suffer from ADHD or their family members itcan be hard to decide what method of helping both of them would be best intheir specific situation. Since there are so many significantly proven methods,it can be hard for those people to decide which method fits best for themwithout the help of specialists. But before we start discussing which methodcould be best, it is important to know what ADHD precisely is.
ADHD is described by Thapar and Cooper (2016) as “achildhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by developmentallyinappropriate and impairing inattention, motor hyperactivity, and impulsivity,with difficulties often continuing into adulthood” (p. 1240). We agree withthis definition, hence the fact it provides all the known aspects of ADHD shownin DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). When trying to raise a childwith ADHD, it can be difficult to decide which way is best to do so.
When taking careof a child as a parent, there are different parenting styles to be used. Ingeneral, there are four parenting styles defined; authoritarian, authoritative,permissive and rejecting-neglecting parenting (Baumrind, 1971; Smetana, 1995).A permissive parenting style is characterised by a tolerant and acceptingattitude, punishment is used as little as possible and the children get a lotof freedom to do what they want (Baumrind, 1971). A rejecting-neglectingparenting style is characterised by parents who do not act interested in theirchildren, they are not strict and neither are they attentively. They don’t payattention to their child in whatsoever way, not positive nor negative (Smetana,1995).However, in thisresearch we focus more on the other two parenting styles, authoritarian andauthoritative parenting. The key concepts to describe authoritarian parentingare parents who demand a lot from their children, but they do not respond muchto what their child does (Baumrind, 1971).
An authoritative parenting style isslightly different, the similarity with an authoritarian parenting style isthat with an authoritative one, the parent is also high in demanding, but thedifference is that in this parenting style the parent is also high inresponsiveness (Smetana, 1995).Even thoughthese two parenting styles are similar in some aspects, using the one or theother causes a severely different development of the child. It seems to be thatparenting styles have a huge influence on the development of the child (McAdamset al., 2014). Because of this, it could be so when changing the used parentingstyle, the development of the child will also differ. Which parenting stylethen has a positive influence on the development of the child and which one hasa negative influence is the main question of this review article. As stated inseveral researches, the surroundings of a child with ADHD can determine the waythey develop (Çöp, Çengel Kültur, & ?enses Dinç, 2017). But the questionremains which specific way of nurturing the child with ADHD would be best,which parenting style fits best for that child and which parenting styleprovides the most optimal development for that child.
When thesequestions are being answered, we might be able to provide recommendations forparents with children who suffer from ADHD. This could help the child achievehis most optimal development. It might also help the parents with achieving themost comfortable way of parenting, so that there are as minimal conflicts aspossible caused by ADHD between the parents and the child. The ultimate goalcould be to provide such advice that the symptoms of ADHD can be reduced sothat the child has less trouble with developing in the most optimal way.
Therefore, themain question of this review article is which parenting styles, authoritativeor authoritarian, provides the most optimal development for a child with Attention Development Hyperactivity Disorder. The goalis to combine previously done researches so we can deepen the knowledge on thiscertain topic.In order toanswer the main question in this review article, we will first review theproblems that often occur when raising a child in general. The next part will consist of the problems of raising a child with ADHD. The last partwill be divided into two parts; the pros and cons of an authoritative parentingstyle for a child with and without ADHD, and the pros and cons of anauthoritarian parenting style for a child with and without ADHD. CoreWhen raising a child, therewill always be a numerous amount of problems that occur.
Small problems orquestions of little importance like which clothes you will let your child wear.But also bigger problems of larger importance. Like the choice which schoolfits best with your opinions of education for your child. However, there aresome determinants that can influence the amount of difficult behaviour thatwill occur during the raising of the child. Several of these determinants werefound by Fox, Platz and Bentley (1995). In their research it was shown thatthere is a negative relationship between bad nurturing and high disciplineevoked by the parents, and multiple traits of the parents: education level, maternalage, family socioeconomic status, marital status, and number of children livingat home.
This means that the child would show more difficult behaviour problemswhen the parents had lower education attainment, were younger, had a lower incomelevel, were single, and had more than one child living at home. The rate of success with social relationships from achild can be explained by looking at the way the parents nurtured their child(Fan, 2010). The results of Fan’s research (2010) show that when a child isshown enough attention, adaptability and creativity provided by the parents,the child itself will also show these traits. Both Fan’s (2010) and Fox, Platzand Bentley’s (1995) research, provide us the information to conclude that theamount and the severity of problems that occur during the child rearing arecaused by the choices the parents make on how to raise their child. But when you are raising a child with ADHD, differentproblems will occur. The previously named problems still exist, but because ofthe disorder there are more difficulties.
Because of the ADHD, which isgenetically influenced, the children have a higher temperament which causesmaternal hostility according to the results of the research done by Harold etal. (2013). This maternal hostility in turn, causes worse ADHD symptoms (Haroldet al., 2013). From this we can conclude that some of the problems that occurwith children with ADHD are different than the problems that occur withchildren without this disorder. So there is need for research on these specificproblems, hence the fact that the solutions for children without the disorderwill not work for children with ADHD.
One of the problems that arises for a child with ADHD isa worse attention span, which causes problems with attending school (Greven,Kovas, Willcutt, Petrill, & Plomin, 2013). One of the problems is homeworkperformance. The study done by Booster, Mautone, Nissley-Tsiopinis, Van Dykeand Power (2016) shows us that there is a relation between the amount ofnegative parenting and homework performance. By using a pre- and post test witha family-school intervention in between, the data provides a significant resultfor bettering homework performance. This means that homework performance willget better when negative parenting is reduced. Which in turn gives us proof forthe thesis that the used parenting style is of great importance in thedevelopment of the child with ADHD. Another problem with parenting caused by the disorderADHD is the amount of parenting stress. In the study of Theule, Wiener, Tannockand Jenkins (2010) a meta-analysis was done, and from this they concluded thatparents with children who have ADHD experience more parenting stress thanparents who have children without any disorder.
They even found that theseverity of the disorder ADHD was a predictive factor to estimate the amount ofparenting stress, the higher the severity of ADHD, the higher the parentingstress. All of these problems show us that there is need for research on theproblems that ADHD brings, to be able to draw conclusions hence the fact thatthese problems are different from the problems that occur when raising a childwithout this disorder. We want to compare the authoritative and theauthoritarian parenting style to conclude which one is better for a child withADHD. The advantage of an authoritative parenting style is, amongst otherthings, that the child develops a better theory of mind understanding with thisstyle in comparison with all of the other parenting styles (O’Reilly , 2014). Another advantage is the high amount of behavioural control,parental warmth and autonomy granting this parenting style brings with itself(Pinquart, 2017). This shows us that there are none or only small disadvantagesof using this parenting style. However, the previous studies were all with children whodid not have ADHD. When we examine studies that do have children with ADHD, wesee that there are a lot of advantages, but also some disadvantages when usingthe authoritative parenting style.
In a study it was found that an authoritativeparenting style predicted a negative peer status (Hinshaw, Zupan, Simmel, Nigg,& Melnick, 1997). But, numerous other studies suggest that an authoritativeparenting style is actually good to maintain when raising a child with ADHD.One of these, is the study done by Alizadeh and Andries (2002), from theresults is concluded that there is a negative relationship between using anauthoritative style and having a child with ADHD. This means that the more aparent uses this parenting style, the less likely a child is to have or developADHD. The other parenting style we want to discuss is theauthoritarian parenting style. From the same research of O’Reilly and Peterson(2014) as named previously was concluded that when maintaining an authoritarianstyle, the theory of mind understanding developing will be worse than whenusing any of the other three named parenting styles.
Another study concludedthat there is a negative relationship between creativity and authoritarianparenting (Miller, Lambert, & Speirs Neumeister, 2012). This means that whena child is raised with this parenting style, his creativity will remain low orwill develop slower than usual. However, there are also advantages of usingthis parenting style. When using the authoritarian parenting style, the childwill develop more performance orientation (Gafoor & Kurukkan, 2014).
Itseems like there are more disadvantages than advantages for using theauthoritarian parenting style. But once again, these were studies that were done withchildren who did not have ADHD. When we look at studies that combine anauthoritarian parenting style and children with ADHD, we can see that there area lot of disadvantages for using this parenting style. The previously namedstudy done by Alizadeh and Andries (2002) concludes for this parenting stylethat there is a negative relationship with having a child with ADHD, whichmeans that the more this parenting style is used, the more likely a child is tohave or develop ADHD. Another study shows us that a maternal authoritarianstyle in combination with hyperactivity caused by ADHD, has a negativerelationship with educational attainment (Flouri, 2007). It seems to be likely that the use of an authoritativeparenting style causes more positive outcomes for a child with ADHD than theuse of an authoritarian parenting style.
DiscussionThe present study was meantto investigate whether an authoritative or an authoritarian parenting stylewould be better for a child diagnosed with ADHD. Concluding from the literatureresearch previously done and described, we can state for now that anauthoritative parenting style is the best to raise a child with ADHD. These resultsare in agreement to the earlier described study done by Flouri (2007), he conductedthe relationship between maternal authoritarian parenting and educationalattainment in the child’s adult life. Following from this research, it wasconcluded there was a positive relationship between using a authoritarianparenting style and educational attainment. The child’s educational attainmentwas deemed higher in his later life when using an authoritarian parentingstyle. But we alsoreviewed the study done by Gafoor and Kurukkan (2014), which showed us thatwhen maintaining an authoritarian parenting style, a child will develop betterperformance orientation.
This confines with our conclusion since this researchshows us that an authoritarian parenting style could be of good influence forthe further life and development of the child. But the results of this studyare barely significant and the population they used was from one school inIndia. This makes the study somewhat unreliable and according to our findings,this is but one study that contradicts our findings against many studies thatsupport our findings. However, thereare some limitations in our performed research. Almost all of the presentedstudies are maternal studies. This means that only one side of the parentingstyle is examined without the paternal side taken into account. In theinterview that we have conducted, it appeared that the parenting styles of themother and father can differ.
Hence the fact that maternal research onlyexamines half of the parental style used, it is hard to strongly conclude fromthe presented studies that the authoritative parenting style should bepreferred over the authoritarian parenting style. Followinglogically from this, we could say that a possibility for further research couldbe to re-enact these performed maternal researches with a paternal point ofview. Then it would be possible to compare the parents’ outcomes, which wouldgive us a better view on how paternal and maternal elements in the parentingstyle play a role. Anotherlimitation of this study has to do with the description of ADHD.
We chose toexamine the disorder ADHD in the broadest way possible. There are namely threesubtypes of ADHD described in the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association,2013): the inattentive type, the hyperactive/impulsive type and the combinedtype. To improve our review, we could examine the previously named studieswhile accounting for the three subtypes of ADHD. By doing this, we couldprovide a more specific advice for parents about which parenting style to usein combination with which subtype of ADHD their child is diagnosed with. This researchcan easily be broadened in some aspects. We could also take the researchperformed on rejecting-neglecting and permissive parenting into account.
Bydoing this, we can produce a more complete database on this subject. We choseto examine the authoritative and the authoritarian parenting style over theother two parenting styles hence these two parenting styles are similar in mostaspects with a small difference in the amount of control and the amount ofpossibility for discussion. The other two parenting styles, permissive andrejecting-neglecting, are very different from each style which makes it easierto compare them with the other styles.
We wanted to show that even smalldifferences in a parenting style can cause severe differences in thedevelopment of a child, which explains why we have chosen to examine the twoparenting styles that look most alike, authoritative and authoritarian. If wecould combine all four parenting styles in a review, we could provide a broadlyreasoned conclusion on which parenting style could be the best for a child withADHD.Taken theinterview that we had with parents of a child with ADHD into account, itappeared that different children with ADHD perhaps need different parentingstyles. This could be in agreement with the alleged three subtypes of ADHDdescribed by the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The interviewedparents tried to raise their child maintaining the authoritarian parentingstyle, as they were told that this style of parenting would be the best fortheir child by doctors. Gradually they noticed their child was not listeningbetter when using this style, neither was he feeling any better. When theydecided to not listen to what they were told about parenting and to parent theway they deemed necessary, they found that using the permissive parenting styleworked best for their child.
They also told us about another couple that has achild with ADHD, with whom the authoritarian parenting style did work. This might beanother limitation of our study. All of the conclusions made in this review arebased on a data sample from which the mean is deemed best. This means all ofthe extremes and outliers could be evening each other out, which shows theresult of an authoritative parenting style as the best one, even though itapparently is different with each child. It could be that this review tries togeneralise the conclusion too much.By performing alot of case studies, it could be reasoned whether the choice of parenting stylehas to be differed with every child or that there actually is one parentingstyle which is in general the best fit for every childsuffering from ADHD. However, eventhough there are some limitations for this performed review, this research doesgive some evidence for maintaining an authoritative parenting style over anauthoritarian parenting style when raising a child with ADHD.
Further researchis deemed necessary, but this research could be a good start to finding a morecomplete answer.