There any case, because of the low biodegradability, these

There have been numerous implementations of
biopolymers applicability in medical and industrial fields. Properties like
biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic end products, high bio-activity
have accounted for its vast applications. Recently, the usage of synthetic polymers are swiftly
picking up speed among individuals mostly because of its benefits of its advanced
properties with minimal effort and weight. In any case, because of the low
biodegradability, these polymers are playing a noteworthy part to save the
nature.

Microbes have proved to be
a reliable biodegradable and renewable source for biopolymer production. A
number of researchers are working on the the
discovery of more and more novel microbial sources of polymers.In recent years, with such performance and price,
waste bio-mass based biopolymer extraction offers tremendous merits for waste
management.

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1.     
Biopolymers
recovery from various sources and levels

As a lignocellulosic feedstock, Biomass waste holds
three main biopolymers: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Due to their
chemical composition Biomass waste delivers an extraordinary source of
biopolymers susceptible to alteration and revalorization, such as cellulose
acetates, which can be used as raw materials for membrane production further.
These can even be obtained by the use of ionic liquids based on carbohydrates
with the application of new environmental regulation for green technologies.
They are utilised for the production of a number of value-added compounds.

Numerous
alternate processing approaches have been extensively considered to recoup
biomass polymers. The key motivation behind pre-treatment is to clear maximum
hemicellulose and lignin possible, while at the same time keeping enough
cellulose intact. The yield extract of cellulose rely upon the pre-treatment
technique, which still remains the most costly and tedious step in biomass
extraction. Moreover, it is extremely hard to sum up the procedure conditions
notwithstanding for a comparative sort of biomass because of the expansive
fluctuation of the crude material creation. Cellulose is at present isolated
from lignocellulosic materials.

 

Extraction
of lignin biopolymer

As far as the future is concerned, Lignin is considered as
one of the most assuring renewable resource. Lessening of synthetic adhesive
usage in wood composite production by the development of lignocellulosic
materials is a challenge. Coir pith is plentifully available waste product
which is lignin rich. The manner of energy supply and chemical extraction
protocols results in the structural changes there by affecting the physical and
chemical characteristics of lignin biomolecule(Panamgama, 2017).

 

Extraction
of cellulose biopolymer

Due to the advantages of
advanced mechanical properties with affordable price and weight, synthetic
polymers are promptly spreading among people in the current period of time.
However, synthetic materials produce environmental pollution due to the low
biodegradability. Hence the productions of biodegradable materials are playing
an important role to save the environment. By the actions of micro-organisms in
the environment, all natural materials are biologically degraded. The biomass
is mainly consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and they are the most
abundant biopolymers present on the earth(Sutherland, 2007). Due to the polysaccharide structure, cellulose and
hemicellulose have comparatively high biodegradability out of the three
biopolymers. With lack of attention Sawmill waste is one of the major waste.
Therefore, the main focus of research is to produce low cost, biodegradable
composite material for applications of engineering by extracting cellulosic
materials present in sawmill waste.

 

Extraction and characterization of chitin

The most abundant natural amino polysaccharide is
Chitin and is estimated to be produced annually almost as much as cellulose. It
has become of great interest as an industrialized resource as well as a new
functional material of high potential in various fields. Chitin was
successfully obtained from the scales of a common Carp fish and characterized
for its functional properties(Sachindra and
Mahendrakar, 2005; Teli and Sheikh, 2012).

Our society is currently facing
the twin challenges of resource depletion and waste accumulation leading to
rapidly escalating raw material costs and increasingly expensive and
restrictive waste disposal legislation. The variety of food processes
used in the foodand
drink industry globally generate food supply chain waste on a multi tonne scale every
year. Such resides include wheat straw surpluses, spent coffee grounds or
citrus peels, all of which represent a resource for an integrated, product
focused biorefinery(Kaur
and Dhillon, 2015). Orange peel is particularly
interesting: two marketable components, pectin and D-limonene, can
be produced together with several flavonoids under the same conditions at a litre scale using
low temperature microwave treatment(Pfaltzgraff
et al., 2013). 

In general there are three ways to produce
biopolymers, – Polymers directly extracted or removed from biomass such as some
polysaccharides and proteins. – Polymers produced by microorganisms or
genetically modified bacteria such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, bacterial
cellulose, etc.  – Polymers produced by
classical chemical synthesis starting from renewable bio-based monomers such as
polylactic acid (PLA).Biomass pre-treatment is a
fundamental step for biomass utilization. It could also be a good alternative
to implement ILs or biological routes for cellulose recovery(Aligned and Nature). Biopolymers like lignin cellulose and hemicullose have been
essentially extracted from various sources over the time. Recently waste bio
mass sources have been employed that have garnered a lot of interest in
agricultural field. L. A. Panamgama and P. R. U. S. K. Peramune , 2017 have
successfully extracted lignin from coir pith by employing three different
protocols , i.e., alkaline extraction using 7.5% (w/v) NaOH, organosolv
extraction using 85% (v/v) acetic acid/85% (v/v) formic acid in a 70:30 (v/v)
mixture, and extraction using polyethylene glycol (PEG)(Panamgama, 2017).

In 2016,K. D. H. N. Kahawita, A.M.P.B. Samarasekara  have successfully conceptualized extraction
of  cellulosic fibres from sawmill waste
like saw dust, chips and shavings produce biodegradable, low cost, better
performance polymer composite material for engineering applications(Tahri et al., 2016).  Organosolv processes release
good-quality cellulose, which can be further functionalized for other
applications such as the generation of acetylated cellulignin. Lucie A.
Pfaltzgra,et al 2012, have  used food
waste like agricultural waste from food production, food processing residues,
mixed domestic waste produce  e.g. wheat
straw surpluses, spent co?ee grounds or citrus peels for extraction of high
energy chemicals(Tahri et al., 2016).

Surinder Kaur and Gurpreet Singh Dhillon, 2013, have researched the bio-extraction
of chitin from crustacean shell wastes(Kaur and Dhillon, 2015).In the past few years, numerous studies have already been reported that
have extracted chitin enzymatically. Teli and Sheikh , 2012 have reported about
the extraction of chitosan , a deacetylated form of chitin from shrimp shell
waste(Bajaj et al., 2011; Younes et al., 2014) . The shellfish has abundance of chitin and in this study, it was
extracted in its chitosan form for further applicability as antibacterial
usage. Chitosan has also been found to have Antitumor, antioxidant and
antimicrobial activities(Arthington-skaggs et al., 1999). Younes et al , 2014 have recovered chitin from enzymatic
deproteinization by  crude proteases Bacillus mojavensis A21 and Balistes capriscus proteases and further
characterized by NMR(Bajaj et al., 2011). In a different study Bajaj et al, 2011 have studied the
extraction  and effect of deproteination
from Crangon crangon shells and deacetylation to chitosan. Deproteination was
carried out with an optimum shrimp shell:alkaline treatemnt of 1:4 from 30 °C
to 65 °C and at each temperature, incubation times were varied from 2 to 5 h
for maximal efficiency(Younes et al., 2014). Another study reported the usage of protease from Bacillus cereus SV1 for chitin and chitosan extraction from waste of
Metapenaeus monoceros shrimp(Manni et al., 2010)

Zaku et al, 2011 have found a
relatively unexplored source for extraction and characterization of chitin from
the scales of a common Carp fish. Such methods have wider applications
when  fabricated   into 
deacetylated chitosan. The rise in extraction of natural chitin is
driven by the fact that the chitin is acquired from a sustainable source,
unlike petroleum derivatives(Zaku et al., 2011).

2.     
Bottlenecks
of Biopolymers recovery

For a sustainable development, there
are various unaddressed issues like usage of a cheap cost efficient raw
material and enhancing the productivity by a complete comprehension of
regulatory mechanism. Rather than alleviating the bottlenecks, some additional
efforts are also required like efficient enhancement of the process and
technology that aids fermentation and downstream processing in industrial
setting(Puyol
et al., 2017).

Optimization of biopolymer production to make up for low biomass yields
would address the grave issue of cost dependence on its yield relative to the amount of carbon
source used. By overcoming these bottlenecks industrial
ecology, economic activity and environmental wellbeing are regulated with the
expansion of the next generation of materials, products, and processes.

In
spite of the potential advantages from bio-based items, few obstacles could
hamper a progress to bio-based production. The carbon-based businesses of today
are entrenched and beneficial and to a greater extent depend on low-evaluated
fossil feedstocks(De Vuyst and Degeest, 1999). Presentation of creative preparing advances has added to vast degrees
of profitability in petrochemical ventures. These vitality and substance
organizations are vertically incorporated to coal, oil, and petroleum gas and
have financial connections to the extraction of these fossil assets.

3.     
Innovative/emerging
Bio-based Technologies for Biopolymers recovery

 

 

 

4.     
Significance
of Bio-based Technologies: Circular economical perspective

In broad terms, linear economy leads to deterioration of the environment
in the production process of converting natural resources into waste by
unsustainable harvesting.  On the other
hand, a circular economy works by drawing its resources from living nature, rendering no effect on
the environmental welfare. Instead, it re-establishes any loss made in the act,
whilst safeguarding that lesser waste is spawn. The Circular
Economy represents an activity of a system as a whole, which is constantly
and consistently built-rebuilt in terms of its fitness. Bio based technologies
have not only opened a gateway for sustainable development but have abstracted
the implementation of circular economy. By
producing natural biopolymers from high-end biomass waste, bio-based industries
in many ways hold the keys to a circular economy and a greener, more
sustainable growth. A cascade of various bio-based processes addressing
circular economy will pave sustainable avenues for the economic development. Therefore,
production of biopolymer from waste biomass has significant potential to
contribute to the ever-growing economy. A bio-based process affects the
economy in a way that the relationship between energy generated in the process
and resources used makes the foundation of a green or sustainable economy.

Furthermore, their fabricated products will revolutionize the face of
biopolymer development in turn enhancing the economic well-being globally.  This change that is brought upon by in the
use of agricultural waste in the generation of bio-energy and other new
products, is being driven by an abundance of research on emerging bio based processes,
novel approaches, and innovative technological applications