name of the disease caused by Campylobacter
jejuni infections is “campylobacteriosis”.
Disease generally known as “campylobacter
enteritis” or “campylobacter
taken by contaminated food especially raw poultry and contaminated water to the
human body and the route of entry of infection is oral.Campylobacter jejuni is the third leading bacteria which cause of
foodborne illnesses. Acheson and Allos(2001) states that “later studies confirmed that when
diarrheal stool samples were cultured for Campylobacter every
time they cultured for Salmonella or Shigella, Campylobacter was
identified 2-7 times more frequently than was Salmonella or Shigella (p. 1201-1206). C. jejuni is
responsible for 90% of Campylobacter infections
and produces gastroenteritis as well as bacteremia, meningoencephalitis, acute
prone arthritis, Guillian-Barré syndrome and Reiter’s syndrome in humans. Campylobacteriosis cases usually occur
as small outbreaks. Anybody can get sick from the food which is contaminated
with C. jejuni. However individuals
15 to 29 years old and children who are younger than 5 years old are more tend
to be get sick than other people. Between these ages, 6 months to 1 year old
babies have the maximum percentage of illness. The people whose immune system weak are the other
risk population of foodborne illness
caused by C. jejuni. CDC explains that Campylobacter disease influences more
than 1.3 million individuals consistently. Most cases are not some portion of
perceived outbreaks, and a greater number of cases happen in summer than in
winter( table 1). The reason for the
increased incidence of Campylobacteriosis in summer is attributed to its
adaptation to seasonal conditions, to changing feeding habits, to bird
migrations and to touristic travels.
infectious seldom cause mortality. Nevertheless the CDC (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention) noted that in the United States, each year, an
estimated 76 deaths of campylobacteriosis
were caused. Halkman(2010) states that the rate of death/case number in C.
jejuni infections is about 0.1%.
The infection dose of C. jejuni strains is
very low. While the number of bacteria causing the disease in some individuals
is approximately 400-500 (also below), more microorganisms should be taken in
other individuals. Also the FDA, has
specified the number of least-consumed Campylobacter cells that can cause
infection to be about 10,000.
the information received from the Bad Bug Book, ” the incubation period, from
time of exposure to onset of symptoms, generally is 2 to 5 days”(p.15). However, according to the information
obtained from Erdo?an Küçüköner’s article, these symptoms can last for 7-10
Diarrhea(generally bloody) is the most commonly seen symptom
of campylobacteriosis. Fever, diarrhea, abdominal cramps are the main
indications of campylobacter infection. However, in some cases some people may not show any symptom. Rarely,
reactive arthritis and Guillain-Barre syndrome can occur because of the
all campylobacteriosis cases are self-limiting and the disease usually lasts
from 2 to 10 days.
1996, it was thought to be there may be a connection between C. jejuni and Gullain-barre
syndrome. As scientific researches show that there is a clear link between some C.
jejuni strains and GBS.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a disease caused by the
immune system damaging the nerve cells in some people. This syndrome and symptoms
arise because the affected person’s peripheral nervous system is damaged.
According to the researches, GBS rarely causes death in humans, in fact Guillain
Barre syndrome is also rarely developed (3000 to 6000 people develop GBS every
year in the US, this frequency is 1 or 2 per 100,000)