The to your weekly purchases at the grocery store.

The internet is a necessity in today’s world. Schools, universities, businesses, governments, and more require the internet as it allows people living across the world to contact each other, lets students submit their assignments online, transfer data within different businesses, provide current news, share files within branches of a country’s government, and more. Information technology is used in our everyday lives and we are surrounded by it even if we are unaware of it. It has become an integral part of the business, commerce, government, and the functionalities of everyday life. It connects people from all over the world, and has made the world smaller and more understandable. It provides access to all of the knowledge and information of the world, documenting everything from the history of the United States to the private information of big banks, to your weekly purchases at the grocery store. It has become a part of human existence, and everything is out there in some database. The issue that comes with this is security. Despite having security measures, it is still possible to hack a different network and steal information. There are many things going on in the world which directly affect people in a negative aspect such as the Equifax hack and North Korea hacking the U.S.-South Korea network. Equifax is one of the three credit reporting companies along with Transunion and Experian. The Equifax security breach occurred in October 2017, impacting 140-145 million people as their names, credit card information, social security numbers, addresses and other valuable information were stolen and that information was sold on the black market. This situation handled by Equifax was extremely intricate and not all of the questions asked to them were answered (Equifax). In September 2016, the North Korean hackers hacked the U.S. – South Korea network and were able to steal at least 80% of the 235 GB of data. The data included military strategic plans constructed by the US and South Korea, wartime contingency plan and plan to remove Kim Jong Un from power, aka “the decapitation plan” (NY Times). Cyber Security in today’s world is different than it was in the past, but it was able to keep up with the internet as it grew. As in recent times, companies are beginning to use cloud technology and protecting the cloud servers has been one of the recent trends (Gartner). Cloud computing means storing servers, database, programs, networks and more on the internet (Azure Microsoft). In this paper, we will talking about history, architecture, framework, components, parts, evolution, tools, definition, techniques, laws and applications of cybersecurity. Driving and impeding forces of cybersecurity are talking points, too. Following the driving and impeding forces, there will be the 6-w analysis for Target, TJX, Home Depot and Hannaford Brothers. Towards the end, there will be the ways on how to protect yourself from cyber attacks and conclusion. With the growth of technology and innovation of the internet since 1960’s, accessing the internet has become easier than it was in the past. During the ’60s, IBM was the company that manufactured the first computers. These computers were of a substantial size and took up a whole room as they consisted of large boxes that contained parts such as CPU, motherboard, fan, disk drive, and other parts that were required for the computer to function. It was difficult to relocate the computer for the person’s convenience, so one had to travel to where the computer was situated to send the information. Government officials around the world used the internet to share information with other officials in different countries. It was an innovative invention during that time. The Cold War was one of the reasons which led to the beginning of the internet era (USG). The U.S DOD created ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) to share information with other countries. ARPANET sent its first message, which was “Lo” (UCLA), at 10:30 pm from UCLA computer lab by Charley Kline, a 21-year-old programmer who was supervised by professor Leonard Kleinrock on October 29th in 1969 (WashingtonPost). ARPANET evolved into something we know today as the internet. The internet was officially launched on January 1, 1983 (USG). Cybersecurity is a relevant and critical problem in today’s world. Cybersecurity “prevents unauthorized access to computers, networks, and data” (Sanford Brown). Knowing that the information about us and how we and others can access it is something that is critical to the existence of the information itself. The safety and security of a multitude of technology systems are very important to the safety of government systems, the world economy, and human lives. It seems that anything can be hacked; a home security and alarm system, power and electricity systems, and even mobile banking apps. These affect the financial security, resource security, and literal safety and security of humans. The protection of these systems and networks and the prevention of these hacks and leaks of information are the jobs of cybersecurity. A cybersecurity engineer’s job is to design security strategy for the company in order to protect it from cyber attacks along with monitoring for unusual accesses, checking for how exposed their network is on the internet and inquiring if the network does get hacked (JobHero). As time progressed, people found ways to access the information and if the information were to fall into the wrong hands, it would compromise one’s life as their information would be public or would put a nation in danger, as its secrets and strategies would be spilled and they could be used against the country. There are many types of cyber attacks such as suspicious software, phishing, malware and DoS attack (denial of service). Malware is also known as malicious software. Trojan horses, worms, viruses are types of malware that could infect and harm user’s computer. Phishing is a disguised way of pretending to be an official email to obtain user’s personal information. Dos attack is also known as denial of service attack. In a Dos attack, a hacker disrupts a network and interrupts the network’s connection to the internet by flooding it with requests in order for it to overload it. Suspicious software is a software in which a virus is built in and it spreads in the computer, corrupting the files, once the software is installed. Softwares such as Norton, McAfee, Windows Defender, and MacOS security are programs that are designed to protect your personal computer from getting corrupted by malwares, services you may have installed on your computer. Since the internet was available to the public, many hackers were able to take advantage of this by stealing data from companies, which affected many people around the world. Some hackers uploaded viruses and worms on the internet that would infect thousands of computers while corrupting them. For example, a Cornell University graduate student known as Robert Morris released a worm known as the Morris worm on the internet in 1988 which affected over 6,000 computers (Washington Post). In the early ages of the internet, companies didn’t have any kind of security software to protect their database, which allowed the hackers to access the confidential information and can cause losses for millions of dollars. Kevin Mitnick, an American hacker, was on the most wanted list for hacking (Salem Press). He had hacked many companies such as Sun Microsystems, Motorola, IBM and more (CNN). If it weren’t for hackers, there would be no cyber security present today. Despite spending millions of dollars on cybersecurity, companies today still become the victims of hacking and millions of people are affected by it. Robert Metcalfe was the engineer that became aware of the fact that the ARPANET’s network was easy to access by others (Washington Post). Hence the encryption process was created. Encryption is a process in which the data is converted into the code to fend off unapproved access. Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf were the computer scientists that implemented encryption into TCP/IP communication protocol, which will arise as the internet later on. TCP/IP is now a universal language in today’s world and every electronic device has a TCP/IP address, which helps sends files, images, and other things via Bluetooth and connect with the internet (Washington Post). In today’s world, everything has laws and regulations of how things should be running, which includes the internet. Torrenting, pirating movies, downloading software illegally, downloading child pornography and distributing it, unauthorized access to networks, and more are considered against the law and the US government could take actions against someone who broke those particular set of laws. Congress passed the computer fraud and abuse act in 1986, which allowed law enforcement authorities to arrest someone who broke laws such as data theft, accessing unauthorized network, hacking and more (Washington Post).With every innovation, especially when it comes to technology, there are factors driving the movement, and there are factors preventing the move toward change. With cybersecurity, there are critical factors pushing and inhibiting the growth and utilization of cybersecurity. The internet and internet policy is a very critical part of securing cyberspace and its users. The issues that arise through internet use involving fraud, misuse, illegal activity, and so on are issues that can be minimized with governmental policy. According to the Department of Commerce Internet Policy Task Force of the United States government, “Addressing these issues in a way that protects the tremendous economic and social value of the Internet, without stifling innovation, requires a fresh look at Internet policy” (US Department of Commerce). With an internet more complex and containing more data than ever before, the stakes and risks are high, emphasizing the importance of cybersecurity.