The through which particulate matter enters the atmosphere and

The ongoing industrialization and urbanization processes involving
transportation, manufacturing, construction, petroleum refining, mining, etc.,
produce large amounts of hazardous wastes which cause air, water, and soil pollution
and consequently threaten human public health and the environmental security.
The generated wastes are released to the environment in different forms, for
example atmospheric pollutants include toxic gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur
oxides, carbon oxides, ozone, etc.), suspended airborne particles, and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), while soil and water pollutants may comprise of
organic substances (pesticides, insecticides, phenols, hydrocarbons, etc.),
heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, etc.), as well as microbial
pathogens. These environmental pollutants have a great potential to adversely
influence the human health (Fereidoun et al. 2007; Kampa and Castanas 2008),
since they can find their way into human body either through inhalation,
ingestion, or absorption (Ibrahim et al., 2016). Worldwide
epidemiological studies have shown that human exposure to respirable
particulate matter is correlated with the increase in cardiac and respiratory
morbidity and mortality. Without question, combustion is a major source through
which particulate matter enters the atmosphere and it is therefore important to
understand the characteristics of these particles and their relation to adverse
health effects. In addition to environmental exposure through combustion-generated
nanoparticles, another human exposure route is the intentional use of
nanoparticles in engineering applications. The increasing use of manmade
nanomaterials to improve the performance of consumer products and medical
treatments may significantly increase the potential for human occupational and
environmental exposure to nanoparticles. Only, recently have the potential
health impacts of such exposure been critically questioned (DeLoid et al.,
2014; Weidemann et al., 2016).


may play a role in many chronic diseases where infectious pathogens have not
been suspected, diseases that were previously attributed only to genetic
factors and lifestyle. These small particles, nanoparticles, have the ability
to enter, translocate within, and damage living organisms. This ability results
primarily from their small size, which allows them to penetrate physiological
barriers and travel within the circulatory systems of a host. The smallest
particles contain tens or hundreds of atoms, with dimensions at the scale of
nanometers, hence nanoparticles. The toxicity of each of these materials
depends greatly, however, on the particular arrangement of its many atoms. Considering
all the possible variations in shape and chemistry of even the smallest
nanoparticles, with only tens of atoms, yields a huge number of distinct
materials with potentially very different physical and toxicological properties. 

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