The anthropogenic influence on the environment is reaching its critical level. Planet and people arefacing negative outcomes of the industrial revolution: climate change, ecological degradation, threaton public health and food security. These outcomes are seen all around the world but its impact onthe Arctic is greater.The global climate change is a key figure of modern environmental issues.
It has recently caused achange of an old image of the Arctic from “the remote forgotten place in the corner of the world”to “the center of political, economic, scientific, and touristic interests of international society on thetop of the world”. The warming of the planet drastically affects the vulnerable Arctic environment.Arctic amplification is creating a loop of feedbacks, which are resulting more dramatic scenarios ofour future.Mainly the change of climate can be sensed by the warming of the atmosphere, which is also causedby the emission of the air pollutants from tourist ships, which have different origins: GreenhousesGasess (GHGs), CO2, Nitrogen (N), Sulphur Oxides (SOx), Short-lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs),and others, emitted anthropogenically and naturally. Climate change has stronger effect on the polarregions because they receive and concentrate the contaminants from low/mid-latitudes.
The pollutantswhich are produced in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas cause greater damage.The risks of environmental catastrophe for the planet, and the Arctic in particular, are only rising dueto the planned economic development of the region: increase of shipping, including tourist cruises,extraction of mineral resources, and other activities will become the sources of the air pollutants, oneof the most dangerous of which is a black carbon.Air pollution is the direct or indirect anthropogenic introduction of substances or energy into the airresulting in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, harm living resourcesand ecosystems and material property and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate usesof the environment (Bull, 2003). Pollutants of all types (liquid, solid, gaseous substances) can bringharm to people and ecosystems. They can be produced close to the surface level (primary), or canform in the air as a result of atmospheric chemistry between primary pollutants (secondary).
SLCP are greenhouse gases and particulates that cause indirect warming influence on global climate,including Arctic, and have lifetimes in the atmosphere of a few days to a decade. Main SLCPs are:black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone and some Hydrofluorocarbonss (HFCs) (Amap, 2015).They are the second contributor of greenhouse effect after CO2.Mitigation of CO2 emissions is the essential part of environmental policies but it will take decades tosee the outcomes because CO2 has long atmospheric lifetime. On the other side, it is believed thatreduction of SLCPs’ emissions, and black carbon in particular, will have rapid positive results, thatwill be quickly observed because of their short lifetime in the atmosphere. Implementation of suchregulations will reduce global warming by 0:5 C by 2050 (Shindell et al., 2012).