The success of governments all overthe world is premised on its ability to provide critical infrastructure andenabling environment that will promote business growth and andindustrialization.
To a large extent, this obsession with industrial growth bycountries has recorded appreciable attainment. Consequently, thisindustrialization has given to rise in the population of the urban areas. Ithas been reported by United Nations Environment Programme (2006) that more than350 cities of the world are having a population of over One Million people.Urbanization and industrialization has given rise to challenges ofenvironmental pollution, thus a negation of the perceived advantages ofindustrialization. Fast urbanization has brought about expanding urban aircontamination in significant urban areas, particularly in developingcountries. It has been accounted for that urbanopen air contamination is responsible for 49,000 unexpected deaths in Africaannually and that 35% of disease incidence are caused by environmentalinfluence (Gopalan, 2003). It is projected that more than 1 billion individualsare subjected to open air contamination every year.
Urban air contamination isconnected up to 1 million unexpected deaths and 1 million pre-native passingsevery year. Urban air contamination is evaluated to cost roughly 2% of GDP indeveloped nations and 5% in developing countries. Accordingto United Nations Environmental programme, Over 90% of air pollution in urbancommunities in developing nations is credited to vehicle emissions emanatingfrom high number of older vehicles combined with poor vehicle upkeep, deficientframework and low fuel quality. In the present day of social order,ease of access is a key component of well-being and prosperity. The capabilityof individuals, families, entrepreneurs and organizations to exchange goods andservices, to be where events are being carried out and to intermingle withpeople on a continuous basis is important not only to economic life but also tothe value of life.
With rapid economic growth, social linkage and spread ofactivities, transportation is now the pillar of accessibility systems. It is a decisivefactor of economic growth and social interactions in most countries.Regrettably, the antagonistic consequences of transportation exhibit anoverbearing influence on the natural and human environment when compared totelecommunications: an important mechanism for providing access. Transportationentails the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy transformed intomotion. Most developed countries have now largely contained some of theseemissions by improvement on vehicle parts and fuel content. However, suchcannot be said of developing countries. Transportation which is associated withthe burning of diesel and gasoline in automobiles, have high consideration asair pollution source both at regional and global levels. In Kumasi Metropolis, influx of oldvehicles has increased fuel consumption by the road transport sector in KumasiMetropolis to 502,148 tonnes in 2010 from 319,878 tonnes in 2005.
The high fuelconsumption levels in the metropolis by the transport sector have brought tobear maximum strain on air quality of the Metropolis. The combustion of fossilfuels brings about vehicular emissions’ such as CO, CO2, NOX,and SO2. The toxic chemical emissions from the exhaust of vehicleshave increased the levels of pollutant in the metropolis (Essumang et al.,2006). The disease profile of Kumasi between 2005 and 2006 released by MetroHealth Department in 2011 revealed that respiratory infections is the secondmost frequently reported cases in the health facilities in the Metropolis. Thiscould be attributed to the attendant effect of increased vehicular emissions inthe Metropolis.
Unfortunately, there is little or no knowledge on the vehicularair pollution levels in the City. Such information is necessary in controllingair pollution and to provide baseline studies on the air pollution of the City.An observational study was carried out to determine the ambient pollution loadof selected arterial roads of the Metropolis.