The theme park industry sometimes known as tourism product for
some countries has been growing rapid and globally. The development of the theme
park in the last three decades has affected the size, capacity, products and
entertainment offerings. Theme park attraction are able to improve destination
image, enhance tourism, benefit the economy and provide education, recreation and
entertainment opportunity for people. Other than that, theme park offering
employability opportunity for local residence to sustain the country and economic
The concept of theme park is not only as extension to tourism sector but it is
considered as a new tourism destination and it complement to the tourism pattern
(Wang Qian and Sun Qiang, 2013). For example, in recent articles (Zoltak,1998) it
has been argued that many of the Asian countries such as China, Thailand and
Malaysia are developing theme parks in order to increase revenue. The growth of
economy of theme park as tourist destination would increase economy, provide
leisure and recreational activities to people. There are many theme parks in the
market which include large scale theme park with thrilling rides, historical features,
art galleries, museums, botanical gardens, zoos, and wildlife parks. Meanwhile,
Malaysia is an ideal place for people to enjoy theme park as the country fortunate for
having green environment and suitable climate and weather.
There are many theme park has been built in Malaysia such as Genting
Highlands Theme Park, LEGOLAND Theme Park, Sunway Lagoon Theme Park, A’
Famosa Theme Park, MAPS Theme park the latest one , and many more. These
growing rate and sustainability of the theme park industry is affected by the
attendance of the visitor.
1.2 Research Background
According to (McClung.C.W,2000) many visitors come to the park because
of the desire of the children. The parents are willing to please the children by going
to the theme park, as discussed at (Johns and Gyimothy,2002;Bakir and
Baxter,2011). They enjoyed watching the children having fun. For the children, the
preference of different age group is different. For example, from the (Pearce,1988),
the children aged 13-16 are interested in thrills than the others. Even though
children’s desire is the main consideration, adults’ interest elements should not be
ignored. It could make the park more fun by increasing the adults’ involvement.
Many visitors like revisit the theme park very often because they are willing
to try something new and the service is satisfy. Frequent visitors have high
satisfaction to the park and purchase the annual pass. The annual pass allow them to
revisit anytime within a period of time. This group of visit are relative less intention
to switch to another brand or theme park. From (Cheng.Q,2014), the variety seeking
of products by visitors means the visitors need different prod
1.3 Statement Of The Problem
Every organization that interacts with customers will be dealing with issues of
customer satisfaction. In daily life, customers wait for service in a variety of settings,
including manufacturing and service business, profit and non-profit organizations, as
well as private and public agencies (Davis & Heineke, 1994).
1.4 Research Objectives
The objectives of this study is to determine the customer satisfaction in
KidZania Theme Park located in Petaling Jaya and the intention that leading in a
result on customer’s revisit in the future is affected by the service quality, queue
management and the safety and security that impact to repeat customer. The study
will address the following objectives:
i. To identify the effectiveness of queue management toward customer’s satisfacation
ii.To identify the importance brand image toward customer’s satisfaction in KZKL.
iii.To determine the level of safety and security toward customer’s satisfaction in
iv.To determine the relationship between queue management, safety and security and
brand image toward customer satisfaction in KZKL.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
Throughout this study, the exppected outcomes of this study will provide
valuable information to the organization and further improve their management
system and increasing its efficiencies, thus maximize their profitability and the
effectiveness of their service system (James Harper, 2013). Hopefully the findings of
this study will provide some relevant explanations of customer’s satisfaction in
KidZania Kuala Lumpur (KZKL). Thus, this information will provide the
management team on a better perception and understanding of customer satisfaction
with the evaluation of service quality, queue management and safety and security.
1.6 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the factor of customer satisfaction
that leading to repeat visitor. Apart from that, the factor of customer satisfaction is
being evaluated base on queue management, safety and security also the brand image
that its impact towards customer’s intention to revisit. These factors, might help the
theme park to attract plenty of customers and eventually provide entertainment and
satisfaction to them.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Background Of The Theme Park Industry
The selected theme park for this research study is in KidZania Theme Park
Kuala Lumpur (KZKL) and has just started their operations on 2012. KZKL is no
exception from facing the same problems related to customer satisfaction as the other
theme parks such as LEGOLAND Theme Park, World’s Theme Park, Sunway
Lagoon Theme Park and etc. KidZania Theme park is located in Mutiara Damansara
of Petaling Jaya. KidZania Theme Park has located strategically with surrounded
attraction such as The Curve, Royal Chulan hotel and the famous Meatball The Ikea
and IPC shopping centre. The theme park also can be access easily by many public
transportation especially MRT station and public bus also reachable by nearby city
such as Kuala Lumpur also has free shuttle bus from Kelana Jaya to IPC shopping
Futhermore, to increase this positive growth, the aspect of maintenance of
games site, cleanliness, facilities and services has to be up grade and keep in a tip top
condition for the use of the employees and tourist. As KidZania Theme Park has
been locate strategically at the Petaling Jaya city with surrounded by other place of
attraction such as Royal Chulan Hotel, THE IKEA and also IPC Shopping Mall.
With the attraction along the theme park, indirectly can influence the visitor overall
satisfaction when visiting the theme park and nearby attraction.
According to (Kotler.P,1994), theme park have a layer of product which is
the core product, the most important product, is the excitement and or atmosphere of
the theme park that creates for the visitors. The tangible product contains the safety,
attractions, shows, brand name, quality of service and sharing the park with other
2.2 Customer Retention
Customer retention is considered a very important goal and a competitive
component in any business environment in the present (Oliver, 1999). As
globalization proceeded in the world economy, the products and services changed
and the competition between the firms started to increase and be more complicated.
(Raghda Climis,2016) indicated that a firm’s most important asset is its existing
customer base. Therefore, it is essential for companies to keep current clients and to
make sure those customers do not go to competitors.He also states that from a
financial view, there are two assumptions to fully appreciate customer retention.
First, obtaining new customers requires new expenses for promotion and
advertising. Thus, new clients cost more than keeping existing ones (Reichheld and
Sasser, 1990). Second, there was overall agreement among researchers that customer
retention indicates long-term relationships. Oliver (1999) determined a customer
retention definition as an extreme commitment to re-buy a favorite service or product
continuously in the future. (Raghda Climis,2016) also stated that many researchers
tried to distinguish the factors affecting customer retention and concluded that there
is a connection between customer satisfaction and customer.
2.3 Queue Management
Efficient queue management is very essential anywhere in order to keep the
people to be on the move. As (Maister, n.d.) stated from Levitt, “Products are
consumed, services are experienced.” Accordingly, if managers are to concern
themselves with how long their customers or clients wait in line for service, then they
must pay attention not only to the readily measurable, objective, reality of waiting
times, but also how those waits are experienced. It is a common experience that a
two minute wait can feel like nothing at all, or can feel like forever. In addition,
(Wilson, 2014) indicated that the customer arrival rate is the way in which a
customer arrives and enters the system for service. Whenever customers arrive at a
rate that exceeds the processing system rate, a line or queue will form and the
arrivals may come in singly or in batches and they may come in consistently spaced
or in a completely random manner.
(Wilson, 2014) mentioned that the rule for determining the formation of the
line or queue and the order in which jobs are processed. There may only be one line
and jobs are processed First-In, First- Out or FIFO. Others may have more than one
line to give certain customers priority such as express lanes in grocery stores. Also,
the service mechanism describes how the customer is served. It includes the number
of servers and the duration of the service time spend in the queue and the actual
amount of time the customer has to wait, but also the customer’s perceptions of that
wait (Davis and Heineke, 1994). The efforts need to be made to understand the
waiting process and to reduce the potential negative impact of waits on customer’s
evaluations (Kostecki 1996).
2.4 Safety And Security
Meticulous attention to the detail, especially in the area of maintenance, is
extremely important to ensure safety and a high quality experience. According to Jim
Reid-Anderson, President and CEO of Six Flags, At Six Flags, nothing is more
important than your safety. It is our absolute highest priority (Six Flags, 2014). In
particular, parents will prefer taking their children to theme parks having a good
record of park’s safety and security. Therefore, theme park needs to have a safety
programme to ensure it has a safe environment where customers can enjoy the
experience and staff can be satisfied with their workplaces.
(Milman, Okumus, & Dickson, 2010) suggest that the industry should focus
on the collective good and make an attempt to bring these various organizations and
associations together; not out of financial necessity, but to develop a more cohesive
approach to the safety of the industry. The combination of identifying trends through
more accurate reporting of incident rates, with the closing of perceived or real gaps,
and the adoption of meaningful nationally recognized standards, the amusement ride
and device industry could significantly improve safety efforts. Without measures
such as these, the amusement industry might be opening itself up to unwanted and
ineffective regulations from external agencies.
2.5 Brand Image
Brand image is basically what comes into the customers’ mind when a brand
is placed in front of the customer. In other words, it means that when the customers
assess a brand name, they spontaneously think of the features of a brand. Mohajerani
and Miremadi (2012) explained that image is the overall impression made in the
minds of the public about something. Recent views of hotel operators stated that a
solid brand image has the capacity to improve corporate esteem, financial
performance, occupancy, average price, revenue and degree of profitability (Fung
So, King, Sparks, & Wang, 2013). Suhartanto and Kandampully (2003) stated that
company image also can be an important element in the value equation. Company or
brand image can support or undermine the value that customer’s feel they are getting,
and therefore, image can affect loyalty. Brand image can be translated into what
customer could benefit, the realization customer’s attributes and the customer’s
personality traits (Maroofi, Nazaripour, & Maaznezhad, 2012).
Image is developed in the customer’s mind through the impacts of promotion,
advertisement, public relations, word of mouth and customer’s encounter with the
products and services (Suhartanto & Kandampully, 2003)
2.6 Customer Satisfaction
Customer Satisfaction is a marketing term that measures how products or
services supplied by a company meet or surpass a customer’s expectation.Customer
satisfaction is now considered as the corporate level strategy (Rust & Zahorik, 1993).
Research shows that customer satisfaction is the basis and source of success for an
organization. As such, customer satisfaction is a base of relation between marketing
and management departments (Claycomb & Martin, 2002), and a source of
competitive edge (Anderson,1994).
In general, total satisfaction is a total assessment that depends on
consumption experience and total purchases of goods or services through the time
(Anderson, 1994). Customer satisfaction has been defined as direct assessment after
purchase (Oliver, 1999). Kottler (2000) defined it as a person’s sensing of liking or
disliking that results from comparing the outcome of service or product perceived
performance in relation to customer expectations.
Furthermore, the satisfied customers will probably talk to others about their
good experiences. This fact, especially in the Middle Eastern cultures, where the
social life has been shaped in a way that social communication with other people
enhances the society is more important (Jamal & Naser, 2002). Although satisfaction
has been defined as the difference between expectation and performance, but there
are differences between quality and satisfaction. For example, (Parasuraman, 1991)
say that satisfaction is a decision made after experience while quality is not the same.
On the other hand, in satisfaction literature, expectations for goods is would, while in
service quality literature, expectations for goods is should. (E.Ibzan, 2016) stated that
overall customer satisfaction has three principal components which is satisfaction
with the product, the company, and the salesperson.
2.7 Research Questions
Based on research objectives, the following questionnaires were developed in order
to understand the level of satisfaction.
i. What is the level of queue management in KZKL?
ii. What is the level of safety and security in KZKL?
iii. What is the level of brand image of KZKL?
iv. What is the relationship between the queue management, safety and security also
the brand image towards customer’s satisfaction?
2.8 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework being used to shows that the relationship between
Independent Variables ( queue management, safety and security also the brand
image) and Dependent Variable towards customer’s satisfaction that leading to
Hypothesis Figure 1 : Reveal The Theoretical Framework
H1: There is a relationship between queue management and customer’s satisfaction.
H2: There is a relationship between safety and security and customer’s satisfaction.
H3: There is a relationship between brand image and customer’s satisfaction.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter will be state the process of collect information and the data.
Also, the purpose of the collecting data and type of research technique that will be
used in a systematic way to solve a problem. It is a science of studying how research
is to be carried out. It is also defined as the study of methods by which knowledge is
gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of research. Research methodology can be
defined as the way or methods of conducting the report.
It is a simple plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and
analyzing the needed information and as a framework for the research plan action.In
addition, in this chapter will explain the design adopted to accomplish the study to
ensure that the method for collecting information is properly gathered and
appropriated to solve the research design, study areas, target population, sample size,
data collection method and data analysis
3.2 Research Design
The primary data will be collect on site setting through observations and
questionnaires instruments. A descriptive research design using a quantitative
approach through cross sectional study is considered the most appropriate method to
be used. Creswell (2007), noted that a quantitative approach is one in which the
researcher primarily uses post positivist claims for developing knowledge and
collecting data on predetermined instruments that yield statistical data with the
ability to attain large number of respondents. Other than that, it involved the
collection of quantitative data of satisfaction ratings and demographic data
Furthermore, Shaw and Wright (1967) stated that the self-reported survey is
one of the best ways in collecting data on human feelings, perceptions, attitudes or
any activity from the selected respondents. It is believed that this approach will give
a significant meaningful result on the issue that will be investigated. This approach
has been chosen as to ensure that the research would be based upon actual customer
experience in KidZania Kuala Lumpur Theme Park.
3.3 Data Collection Method
The primary data will be collect on site setting through observations and
questionnaires instruments.In addition, the research used the cross-sectional studies.
This cross sectional studies will be carry out once, perhaps over a period of days or
weeks or months in order to answer to research question. Moreover, location to
distribute the questionnaire only at the workplace areas that suitable and comfortable
to respondents answering. Each of respondents have to spend around 3 until 5
minutes to answer the questionnaire.
3.3.1 Study Area
The study area that being focus are at Kidzania Kuala Lumpur Theme Park.
This place was chosen because as one of indoor family edutainment centre which
offers an interactive learning and entertainment experience for kids in a kid sized city
to deliver the first-of-its-kind edutainment fun. Kids able to experience about real
life, empowering, inspiring and educating kids through roleplay. Moreover, the
subject for the research are suitable to focus on this theme park.
3.3.2 Primary Data
Through this study, 150 random respondents were selected to participate in
the data collection. The respondent were briefed about the research intention and
were given the Questionnaire Survey Form which included Section A, B, and C.
While answering the questionnaire, the respondents were briefly explained on each
of the section and there were no right or wrong answers.
3.3.3 Secondary Data
Secondary data is a data that already been collected for purpose other than
primary data to strenghten the resources. There are two types of resources which is
internal and external secondary data that the researcher collected. The internal data
will be collected from the sources of human resource department of Kidzania Kuala
Lumpur and external data will be acquired from the information of previous research
such as thesis and journal.
3.4 Research Instrument
Data will be gathered through a survey form that presented in a paper version.
The first part is demographic profile which will asked the questions of the
demographic profile such as age, education, income, gender and many more. The
second part will asked on the aspects and factors for this research study. The
independent variables such queue management, services quality, and safety and
security will be asked in this part in determining the dependent variable level which
is customer’s satisfaction in the kidZania theme park. Before that, a pilot test will
carry out before finalize the questionnaire structured by distribute to 20 students,
BTH 7 from Bachelor Science (Hons) International Tourism and Hospitality
Management to go through the questions, answer the questions and also give some of
suggestion or recommendation about the structure of questionnaire.
The Questionnaires that were developed are using 5-point Likert scales. The
evaluation options in regard to the concepts of customer’s satisfaction are listed as
follows: (1) definitely disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4)
agree, (5) definitely agree.
3.5 Sampling Design
3.5.1 Target Population
The respondents will be KZKL Theme Park’s customer and received no
academic or monetary awards for their participation. We had categorized the
respondents into two (2) age groups, respondents over 18 years and above act as a
guardian and parents, while respondents under 13 to 17 years old were categorized as
a child respondent.
.6 Data Analysis
The data were calculated and entered into a computer system for analyses.
The Statistical Packages of Social Sciences (SPSS) software will be use to analyses
the data and interprets it. Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies and
Mean will be use to analyses the data. SPSS consists of an integrated series of
computer programs which enable the user to read data from questionnaire surveys
and other sources.
As a conclusion this research will be conduct as the researcher want to know
the relationship of service quality, queue management and safety and security that
could indicate the customer’s satisfaction.
The theme park industry sometimes known as tourism product for