The Stroop Effect What influences us to respond quicker or slower to the Stroop Task?1. Please write the reference for this article in APA style.Reference:Blagrove, M., Bell, E., & Wilkinson, A. (2010). Association of lucid dreaming frequency with Stroop task performance. Dreaming, 20(4), 280-287. doi:10.1037/a00208812. Write a 3-4-sentence “overview” or brief summary of the article. Indicate your assessment of what the study is about and the major findings of the study. NO QUOTATIONS ALLOWED!!!! The study examined frequent lucid dreamers, occasional lucid dreamers, and nonlucid dreamers to find out if lucid dreaming influenced the response time during a Stroop task. Lucid dreaming is known as one who is aware that they are dreaming, while still being asleep. To know that you are dreaming requires a great amount of attentional skills just like performing efficiently on a Stroop task does. The hypothesis of the study predicted that frequent lucid dreamers would have a quicker response time on a Stroop task because they have better attentional skills than those who do not have lucid dreams often or at all. The findings of the study proved the hypothesis right; frequent lucid dreamers had better response times on the Stroop task because their attention is more focused. 3. According to the papers introduction, what information was already known about the topic – so here look for references to previous research?According to the papers introduction, Blagrove and Wilkinson already knew what Lucid dreams and the Stroop task were and how they both require attentional skills to be done efficiently. From previous research articles, Blagrove & Wilkinson (2010) went into detail about the explanations of the Stroop effect saying that “there is interference between two conflicting sources of information, where the processing of one of these sources (reading the meaning of the word) is faster, more automatic, or easier than the processing of the other source of information (the ink color).” The attention required during a Stroop task is clearly known and involves an involved research of lucid dreamers because those who can lucid dream have higher attentional skills than those who cannot lucid dream. From the introduction, the authors already knew that and wanted to show how having higher attentional skills increases cognition abilities and recognition. 4. What variables are they interested in? What are their hypotheses concerning these variables?The variables Blagrove and Wilkinson were interested in were frequent lucid dreamers, occasional lucid dreamers, and nonlucid dreamers, as well as the time response on a Stroop task. The hypothesis concerning these variables is that “those individuals who more frequently perform this dream metacognition (i.e., lucid dreamers) will have the attentional ability to perform better on the incongruent condition of the Stroop task than do nonlucid dreamers” (Blagrove & Wilkinson, 2010). 5. How do they operationally define the variables studied?Blagrove and Wilkinson define the variables studied as follows; frequent lucid dreamers are those who have had lucid dreams more than once per month, occasional lucid dreamers are those who have had lucid dreams at least once in their lifetime, and nonlucid dreamers have never had a lucid dream. 6. Who were the participants in this study? Were there any special participant characteristics? Where did they find their participants?Participants consisted of both males and females from the student population of Swansea University. They were given course credits instead of being paid for their participation (Blagrove & Wilkinson, 2010). The participants had to meet certain criteria, such as not being color blind since the Stroop task involves colors. 7. Describe the procedure(s) used to test the hypotheses? Did you notice any problematic features of the procedure?The procedures used to test the hypotheses involved both a dreaming questionnaire and a Stroop task. The dreaming questionnaire “gave the definition of a lucid dream, assessed lifetime occurrence of lucid dreams, assessed frequency of dream recall, and requested an account of a lucid dream for all individuals who stated that they had had one” (Blagrove & Wilkinson, 2010). The Stroop task consisted of different colors; red, green, blue, pink, yellow, and black, as well as different conditions for the colors to be presented. The conditions were either congruent, incongruent, and XXXXX. The congruent condition meant that the word spelled out was the same as the colored ink. The incongruent condition showed a word spelled out that was different than the colored ink. The XXXXX condition had a different color for each item. The researchers had participants look at a PC monitor and verbally call out the worded color for forty different items.A problematic feature I noticed is that there is no proof whether or not a participant actually had lucid dreams. 8. What were the major results of the study? Were the results consistent with the hypotheses?The results proved the researcher’s hypotheses correct; frequent lucid dreamer’s responded quicker to all three conditions of the Stroop task.9. How did the researcher interpret the results? Can you think of alternative interpretations?The researcher’s interpreted the results fairly, by using a histogram to show how many seconds it took to accurately complete the Stroop test for frequent lucid dreamers, occasional lucid dreams, and nonlucid dreamers. On the y-axis was the seconds to complete the Stroop test and on the x-axis was the incongruent, XXXXX, and congruent conditions. Frequent lucid dreamers completed the Stroop test the quickest for each condition. I feel like this was a great interpretation and the data accurately showed the findings from the research. 10. Did the author give suggestions for future research or applications? Can you provide other suggestions?The researchers suggested that one suggestion for future research is to “assess whether this attentional ability of frequent lucid dreamers is even more pronounced for individuals who have longer lucid dreams, or who have a greater degree of lucidity, as measured by, for example, level of control of dream events” (Blagrove & Wilkinson, 2010).I gathered that the level of attention skills in a particular person is what results in a quicker response on a Stroop test, so lucid dreamers are just an example of how attention skills play a huge factor in the accurate results on a Stroop test. Therefore, I would like to compare other reasons for high attention alertness to see if that still gives the same test results. For example, the amount of coffee one consumes or the amount of sleep one has in a night. Lucid dreaming is just one small example on how people with high attention skills have quicker responses.