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Constitution of United States of America was signed on September 17, 1787. The
Constitution is what established America’s National government, laws, and basic
rights to the citizens of America. Before the Constitution was written, the United
States operated under The Articles of Confederation. The national government was
very weak and had very little control, which allowed states to run as if they
were induvial countries. At the Constitutional Convention of Philadelphia, the delegates
came up with a system for a strong federal government. Naming this document,
The Constitution of the United States of America.

Constitution is broken up into seven articles, each article then has multiple sections.
Article 1 being the longest with ten sections. Article 1, section 1 is where congress
is broken up into two sections, the Senate and the House of Representatives.

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Section 2 then goes on to explain
what is expected of and what is needed to be a member of the House of
Representatives. A Representative is position that is up for reelection every 2
years and is elected by his or her state’s citizens. A member must meet a few
qualifications before running for office, these qualifications are, they must
be 25 years of age, has been a united states citizen for 7 or more years, and
must be a resident of the state in which the wish to represent. Each state gets
one representative per 30 thousand citizens, but each state gets at least one,
even if they do not have 30 thousand constituents. If a representative, quits
or dies, executive authority can have appoint/elect someone to fill their spot,
and serve the rest of their two-year term. Section two also states that the
House of Representatives will be able to choose their own speaker of the house
and other officers. The House of Representatives have the sole power on

Section three explains the
qualifications and duties of the Senate. Each state, no matter the size, get
two Senators. Each Senator has their own vote and serve a six-year term once
elected. In order to be elected as a state senator, one must be thirty years
old at least, be a citizen of the United states of America for nine years. He
or she must also be living in the state that they are trying to become a
senator for. Section 3 also says the Vice President of the united states is the
President of the Senate. The President of the Senate does not get to vote of
anything, unless the Senate is voted a tie, then the Senate President is the deciding
vote. Like the House of Representatives, the Senate gets to choose their
officers and the “President pro tempore” who acts as President with the Vice
President is absent. The Senate is also when impeachment cases are tried. Two-thirds
of the senate must be in agreement to impeach the President of the united

Section four is basically saying
that it gives the states the power to organize elections but gives congress the
power to make new rules for federal elections. Section five gives the House and
Senate the power to “judge” or make the qualifications of their members. It
also states that a majority of their members must be present to have a quorum.
If the majority of members do not show up, then they will that a temporary adjournment.
The House and Senate also have the power to set their own rules regarding parliament

Section five also tells the House
and Senate that they must have official recording of their sessions, and that
one of them isn’t allowed to take an extended vacation without permission from
the other.


Section six is where the
Constitution talks about how put congressmen get paid. They are paid by the
national government, and they also get to set their own salaries. It also says
the congressmen have legislative immunity, which mean anything that they say in
congress cannot be charged against them in a court of law. Section six states
that no member or the executive or judicial branches can serve in congress at
the same time, and vice versa. Which is to makes sure that there is separation of
powers between our three branches of government. A member of the Judicial
branch cannot quit his or her job for a place in congress or any other branch.

Section seven states that all bills
that have to do with revenue, or in other words taxes, must originate from the
House of Representatives. The Senate is then able to propose changes or
amendments to those bills. Once bills have been passed in the House or Representatives
and in the Senate must be signed by the President in order to become law. If
the President does not like the bill, he can send it back to be amended.

Section eight lays out the powers
that congress has. The very first of these powers, is the power to tax. This
gives congress an immense amount of power, because money is power. Congress is
also allowed to go into debt if need be, in order to pay for government programs,
which may have become a huge problem today. Congress has the power to regulate
commerce or trade with foreign nations and between states. Congress can print
money and punish people who counterfeit money. Congress establishes roads and
post offices, promote and progress science. They also have the power to declare
war, raise and support armies, and make rules and regulations for those armies.
Congress has the power to set up lower-level federal courts that report to the
Supreme Court. Finally, they are able to make laws that aid in executing the
powers that the Constitution has given them.

Section 9 is a fairly dark section,
because it is about America’s disgraceful history with owning slaves. Section
nine is basically saying that congress is not going to do anything about the
slave trade until 1808, instead they help themselves but taxing a maximum of
ten dollars per salve that is bought/sold. Section nine also establishes Habeas
Corpus, which means no one can be held in a jail, unless they are under arrest
and being charged for a crime. They did leave in a loop hole of “rebellion or
invasion of public safety.” Section nine restricts congress of taxing states
based on their population, unless it is a census. Congress also does not have
the power to tax exported goods from any state. All shipping ports must be
taxed the same. Congress is they only branch that has control over government
spending. Anything regarding money must be approved by congress. Which is an
important check on the power of the President.

Finally, section 10, says that no
state can create treaties, coin money, and they can’t make laws that go against
federal laws or break contracts, or “grant titles of nobility” which basically restricts
states from acting as their own independent counties. States also cannot tax
imports or exports from other states. Most importantly, states are not allowed
to raise up their own armies and cannot declare or start wars.

Article 2 of the constitution is on
the executive branch of the government. Executive power is given to the President
of the United States of America. He (or she) can be in office or a total of
two, four-year terms, along with their Vice President. Section one establishes
the electoral college. Each state gets a certain number of votes, which is equal
to their number of senators and representatives. Then the people of that state
vote for how they would like the members of the electoral college to vote for
them. This is how a President might with the presidency but lose the popular
vote. Congress is allowed to set the date for the presidential election. In order
to run for Presidency, one must be 35- years old, be a natural born citizen on
the U.S., and has to have been living in the U.S. for at least 14 years. If the
President dies, resigns, or is impeached, the Vise president takes office, if
he dies, resigns, or is impeached the speaker of the house takes office. The
President is a paid position and has a pre-set salary, which cannot be changed
throughout his term. The president must be sworn in by taking an oath.

Section 2 lays out the roles of the
President, first and foremost being the commander in chief of the military. He
has the power to pardon crimes, and he is the head of all the heads of civilian
departments in the government. The president is able to make treaties with
other countries, with 2/3 approval of the Senate. He can also appoint
government officials, and if there is an open stop on the supreme court he can
appoint a new member. Section 3 list the duties of the president, which are
reporting to congress with the state of the union address. The president can
call congress into session when they are out on vacation. He also must commission
officers of the military.

Article 3 talks about the Judicial
branch of the government. It grants the supreme court all of the judicial power
of the united states. So, it is saying that that the supreme court is basically
the head of the judicial branch. The Federal courts settle disputes of federal
crimes and between states. The supreme court gets original jurisdiction, which
means it will hear the case first. A person in federal courts has the right to
be heard by a group of citizens versus only by a judge. Treason is the only
crime that was specifically laid out in the constitution, saying that there
must be two eyewitnesses to convict someone of treason. And if convicted of treason,
that person’s descendants cannot be punished for that crime.

Article 4 states that each state
has to recognize the laws, court rulings, and records of other states. States
also cannot discriminate against citizens of other states. If a fugitive flees
the state they committed the crime in, once caught they have to be sent back to
the state the crime was committed. No state is allowed to become a dictatorship
and must have representatives in the government.

Article five states that the constitution
may be amended. Article six promises to take on the debt that the government under
the articles of the confederation had racked up. It also says that the
constitution is the supreme law of the land. No laws made by the states can
trump the constitution. All government officials must swear an oath upon being
elected or appointed into office. Article seven says that they need 9 out of 13
states must agree in order for the Constitution to take effect.  41 of the 55 men in attendance of the convention
signed the constitution.