The larvae against the skin of a human host.

The parasite L. loa germinates from
bites from deer flies. The deer fly will make a meal of the blood, the infected
fly presents third-stage larvae against the skin of a human host. The larvae then
enters the wound and matures into adults that generally reside is hypodermic
tissues. The female parasites are generally larger than males, gauging 40-70 mm
in length. Microfilariae lose their sheaths and bore through the wall of the gut,
then larvae journey to the fat of the body where it will experience two sheds.
Them the larvae become infectious after roughly 10 to 12 days, in the
subcutaneous tissue larvae take between 6 months to 4 years to mature into
adults. The parasites reach adulthood in 1 to 4 years and can live for as long
as 17 years. Throughout this time they move without restrictions in the subcutaneous
tissues of the host, this also includes the sclera of the eyes hence the common
name of eye worm. The worm tends to reside in the bloodstream in the hours of
daylight and migrate into the lungs during the night.

At this time it is estimated that about
13 million people are infested with this parasite. Loiasis is one of the most
common reasons for medical appointments in some hyperendemic districts.  Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad,
Congo Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, and North Angola are the
main areas linked with this parasite. In endemic zones there is advanced danger
of getting this infection in someone who is increasing in age. It is also the
more common for filarial infection to be developed by tourists. Generally, it
takes months or even years of contact with this parasite to contract this
infection. In some cases, infection can commence after a brief quantity of time
were a person is exposed. This disease infects as much as 30% of visitors who
are in this area for extended amounts of time.

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A great number of people who are
infected with L. loa will not show symptoms. For those who do start to show symptoms
the main indications of this infection include, subcutaneous swellings, also
known as Calabar swellings, and movement of the adult worm across the conjunctiva
of the eye. People who do not have immunity might have allergic-type signs that
include pruritus, asthma and urticaria. The calabar swellings are a sort of
painless swelling, this swelling is customarily triggered by an allergy to
pollen, medications, animal dander, venom, and food. However, when swellings
arise because of L. Loa it is due to sensitivity to the release of the
microfilariae or the migrating of the adult worm. Calabar swellings are more
common on the extremities and the face, they typically are non-erythematous and
die out after a few days.

 Recognizing the adult worm in the subcutaneous
tissue will ultimately diagnosis this parasite. Another way to identify this
parasite would be to complete a blood smear to recognize the microfilariae,
this would be done by preforming the Knott or the saponine test. Serologic tests
are more beneficial in diagnosing loiasis among travelers. In endemic dwellers
serology is not helpful, this is because their antibodies stay positive for lengthy
quantities of time after interaction with the parasite. Antibody tests have moderately
good sensitivity but poor specificity because of a cross reaction with filarial

The choices about what treatment should be used when handling
loiasis can be hard and often might require guidance from an expert. Surgery can
be a possibility for the abstraction of adult worms beneath the skin or in the
eye. Loiasis can not be cured with surgical procedure alone, however eliminating
the worm might decrease anxiety in the host. There are two medications that can
be used to manage symptom and treat the infection. Diethylcarbamazine is one of
the medications that can treat this parasite, it kills the microfilariae and
adult worms. Albendazole can be used as well if numerous diethylcarbamazine
treatments still do not cure the infection. If infection worsens there is a danger
of brain inflammation if  treated with diethylcarbamazine,
this can cause a coma and rarely death.  The
wellbeing of a person will determine if treatment can be completed.