The increasing of engagement in learning. To determine the

The learning experience of students will be affected
by the type of content in the educative augmented reality (AR) application 6. It has been
proven that AR offers several advantages in the educational landscape, i.e.
increasing understanding of some topics and increasing of engagement in
learning. To determine the result of how the type of content in AR will affect
the learning experience, Christian has conducted an experiment where static and
dynamic contents of AR is used in topics related with an electronic fundamental
course. Applications were developed to be deployed on a mobile device using
Vuforia and Unity3D. Sixteen students aged around twenty years took part in the
test and forty percent of the testers were women. To make sure the test is
valid, none of the students have prior knowledge on the topics evaluated. The
test was composed of four major steps. The steps were Pre-Test, where the prior
knowledge of the students before being taught by the AR application. The next
step was the interaction of students with the AR application using both static
and dynamic contents. Then a post-test was conducted to determine how much each
student learned about the topics taught. Finally, a survey was performed to
assess the students’ perception of the learning process. From the results of
the survey, it can be concluded that the AR application using static and
dynamic content is effective in teaching. It can also be observed that there is
a difference in the learning level of the students where dynamic and static
contents were used. Students also preferred learning with dynamic contents than
static contents. 

According the research conducted by 7, augmented
reality (AR) could enhance students’ performance in learning and academic
achievement. The study was aimed to determine the influence of AR technology on
the learning effectiveness of students. Three types of materials were used to
teach concepts of the moon to students participated, which includes 2D animation
materials, 3D simulation materials and AR materials. The 2D animation materials
were designed using Flash technology, it has proven itself to be an effective
2D animation learning system throughout the years. The 3D simulation materials
were taken from Google Earth while the AR materials were developed specifically
for the study based on the Total Immersion D’Fusion AR software package. This
study was participated by 104 junior university students from a university in
Taiwan, including 41 males and 63 females. The participants were divided into
three groups and they were randomly assigned to the AR, 2D and 3D group. The
concepts were taught with the materials according to the groups assigned. The
learners are required to describe the learning task after completing each stage
of the experiment, attend interviews recorded by the instructor in class, fill
up questionnaires and do an online post-test achievement test to examine their
progress for data collection. In conclusion, all three approaches are helpful
for the improvement in learning. However, the difference between each group is
not significant. Thus, although AR can improve learning effectiveness, the
advantages of AR materials require further exploration. However, according to
the survey, students in the 3D and AR group are more concentrated and motivated
in learning. In a nutshell, using AR materials can enhance the students’
learning performance and academic achievement. 

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Virtual perception is a prerequisite for the
functioning of augmented reality (AR) in the educational landscape 8. Jerabek and his
team aims to analyse the specifics of visual perception in AR and list the
characteristics of AR system from the perceptual perspective. The ability of
the system to work with different channels can be assessed from the perceptual
viewpoint. The added information can be described by 4 parameters 8. The first
parameter includes the graphical data reflecting cognitive difficulty of
processing information. The second parameter is the dynamism of images which
consists of static, kinetic and dynamic images. The next parameter is
spatiality, which is linked to the spatial depth. The last parameter is colour
information, and it is linked to a display device representing AR. In
conclusion, AR is an innovative didactical tool that contributes to more
effective education activities through enhancing the system. It will then
become a suitable tool for supporting cognitive processes in different
educational landscapes. Based on the properties of AR, the presumption is made,
which the combination of the real world with augmented information in different
forms can increases the informative value of the content.

9 had suggested
that using an AR game-based learning system will affect the effectiveness of an
educational landscape. Malone suggested that games can increase motivation,
therefore it is an essential feature for the lives of children and teenagers.
An AR game-based learning system for elementary science education concerning
with the marine life food chain was constructed for this study. The purpose of
the study is to determine the effectiveness of the AR game-based learning
system to facilitate teamwork skills, learning motivation and learning
achievement of the elementary school children. The AR system was developed by
using ARToolKit, Visual Studio C++, 3D Max and Adobe Illustrator.  The game’s purpose is for learners to find
appropriate baits for certain fish by exploring fishing areas and to form as
many food chains as possible by collecting different ocean species. Ten college
students participated in in five tests, where pair of students worked together
to evaluate the functions and UI design of the gaming system. The researchers
asked the students to fill out a questionnaire after each test, and revised the
UI and functions of the system according before the next pair of students.
After the five consecutive tests, the system was modified again based on
suggestions of all the students. Then the students participated in the second
phase of program evaluation. Then an interview was conducted to collect
information about the revised system. The students provided positive feedbacks
about the system to improve the gameplay experience. As conclusion, this paper
was focused on the design and used of technology in an AR game-based learning
system. The results of the system prototype evaluation showed that students are
fairly interested in the system. However, the system UI design and gameplay
need to be modified before the system is launched.

By using Augmented Reality(AR), higher education
students’ maths learning could be enhanced 10.
To find out the result, Coimbra and his team conducted the test in a
university’s Electrotechnical Engineering Evening Classes. 13 tablets and 13
user manuals were handed to every student in the class. The contents of the
study program of the unit course were being progressively presented, and all
the students followed the oral explanations carefully, complemented by the AR
contents available. Coimbra and his team observed that about half of the
students were curious on testing the new AR contents with their own mobile
phones and they did it in a very quick way. This evidences that the AR
application can be seen as a system for enhancing the learning experience of
math classes. At the end of the test, 10 of the 13 students answered to an
interview which took about 5 minutes. Majority of the students have not had any
previous contact with any forms of AR contents in classes. Nonetheless, all of
them stated that whey would greatly accept the integration of AR technologies
in Mathematical Analysis because it facilitates learning. Not only that, the
students showed great interest and curiosity in the software potentialities of
AR. Almost all of the students agreed that AR greatly enhances their learning
experience, and though that this was the best math’s classes they have ever
had. In conclusion, we can sustain that in this context, AR is an enhancer for
math’s learning, even though Coimbra and his team are aware that there are many
aspects that should be improved. The researchers believe that after improving
the software, the effect of the software would be greatly improved. Thus, it
can be concluded that 3D technologies, such as AR can greatly enhance the
teaching and learning of mathematics of higher education students, or in other
words, AR can increase the access to knowledge of many other students.


Mental training 11 is one of the
ways of psychological preparation in sport. This research is conducted with the
aim to develop prototype simulator dedicated to sports education for the
competitors who practices combats sports. The researcher used a Kinect sensor
for the Xbox One to track the movement of the competitors, and an Android
tablet will be used in presenting the information along with a sighted glasses
Vuzix Star1200XLD. These devices combined will visualize the virtual models of
an image of an athlete performing throw. The reference suiting to the learner
will be showed. After that, the athlete will give feedback to the researcher
about the AR system. The feedbacks given includes the information of the
sequence of the moves, the execution of the moves and the parts that can be
improved. The coach can also receive the video of the moves executed by the
learner, the video of the executed moves with the imposed learner’s image as a
skeleton, and the information whether the moves was properly executed. If the
deviations displayed were different with the ideal execution, the learners will
be given suggestions on how to improve the execution of moves. In the end, a
satisfaction survey is carried out. It is done to determine the level of the
user’s satisfaction after using the AR system, which is important for the
improvement of the system. In conclusion, the effectiveness of mental training
using AR system cannot be determined definitively yet 11. Therefore, an
extended degree of testing must be implemented to verify with the learners and
the coaches.

Students’ learning could be collaborating Mobile
Augmented Reality (AR) with traditional learning materials 12. A learning
application was developed to enable students to learn collaboratively with
their mobile phones. The result is determined by the students’ learning
performance after learning. The study was conducted with 120 IT students, with
a mean age of 19.5. The learners were split into two groups, which are the
experimental group and the control group. Collaborative Mobile Augmented
Learning Application (CoMARLA) was used in one of the topics of the ICT course
by the experimental group, whereas the control group learned using the
traditional approach. Before the learning sessions, pre-testing was conducted
to determine the level of knowledge of the learners in the specific subject.
After the learning sessions, a post-test was conducted to determine the effect of
CoMARLA. Analysis of the test showed that there were noticeable differences
between conventional learning and CoMARLA learning. The experimental group
outperformed the control group by 9% after calculations were made. On top of
that, different performances were also noticed between male and female students
based on the learning methods which did not happen among female students. In
conclusion, the tool could be used to help learnings to learn with greater

Researches prove that Malaysian students have low
motivation in learning ICT course due to several reasons, such as lack of
effective learning applications and lack of learning practice 13. To address the
problem, Hanafi have carried out a study to examine the impact of mobile
augmented reality learning application (MARLA) on students’ motivation in
learning an ICT course. The sample consisted of 120 students majoring in social
science with an average age of 20 years. The students were divided into 2
groups, namely the experimental group and the control group. The students’ motivation
in learning will be the measured factor. MARLA were used by the experimental
group to learn Computer System, where the control group used a different
application in their computers. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was
used to measure the student’s motivation before and after the learning
sessions. An analysis of covariance was performed, which shows that there was a
huge effect attributed to the genders only, with male students attaining mean
score of 4.24 while female students attaining 3.90 for the motivation
construct. However, no such effect was observed attributed to the learning
methods, as proven by the mean scores of 4.08 and 4.07 of the experimental
groups and control respectively. This suggests that both methods were equally
effective. On top of that, an interaction effect was observed between gender
and learning methods, with male students attaining various levels of motivation
based on learning method. Perhaps, MARLA can be used to help students learn
with greater motivation, but proper planning will be required to guarantee its

Augmented Reality has become more popular and it’s
tested by many researchers to determine if it could improve the student’s
learning process, and help them to visualise concepts better 14. AR is a
technology that enables computer graphics to overlay onto the real world,
allowing users to see the real world with virtual images attached onto real
world objects. To find out the effect of AR on learners, an experiment was
conducted. An AR system was developed and tested with 37 first year mechanical
engineering students at UNITEN. Two systems were setup in the research
laboratory of the university. Each student was allowed spend around fifteen
minutes to use the AR system. After the testing, interviews and questionnaires
were used to measure the ability of the system, which includes the visual cues,
how well the system did in assisting them in understanding the concepts and the
effectiveness of the method in their learning. Based on the results of the
study, weaker students who used the AR learning system had remarkably better
understanding on the subject. However, some of the students had obstacles
interacting with the system as they are not familiar with the user interface of
the system. The students seemed to be satisfied using the system and thought
that the system can indeed help them in their learning. Generally, most
students thought that the system to be very useful and only a small number of
students thought that the system is not useful. As conclusion, the AR learning
system did benefit the students as they found it to be an interesting way of
learning.According to 15, Augmented
Reality (AR)provides several benefits and advantages to students in medical
schools. Augmented Reality can record the full 3D quality of an object, and
allow the users to easily see this as an image that is truly 3D. AR images of
human organs can be used as materials to teach students in medical school
dissections, and even the latest surgical techniques, surgical tools as well as
environments. AR images and illustrations of the human anatomy can be delivered
to the students in real-time and full colour. Teachers are able to guide the
students with medical data and instructional embodiment in an immersed learning
environment. Students are also able to experience and develop different sensory
modalities and perceptions as they interact with the AR images. AR images
literally hand in space, and teachers could teach as well as test students’
knowledge and understanding of the subject. The AR system could also provide
“x-ray vision” for students, giving a clear visual understanding of the
anatomy. Based on the survey, students reported that learning is greatly
enhanced with the intuitive “x-ray vision”. Students’ skills are able to be
enhanced by interacting with the AR system, as well as their mental
representations in real-time applications. By PROVIDING immediate 3D
information, AR enhances the understanding of human anatomy which could not be
efficiently learned with the conventional systems. In a nutshell, the future of
educational and biomedical applications are pointed this way, by the new
emerging AR technologies.