The learning experience of students will be affectedby the type of content in the educative augmented reality (AR) application 6.
It has beenproven that AR offers several advantages in the educational landscape, i.e.increasing understanding of some topics and increasing of engagement inlearning.
To determine the result of how the type of content in AR will affectthe learning experience, Christian has conducted an experiment where static anddynamic contents of AR is used in topics related with an electronic fundamentalcourse. Applications were developed to be deployed on a mobile device usingVuforia and Unity3D. Sixteen students aged around twenty years took part in thetest and forty percent of the testers were women.
To make sure the test isvalid, none of the students have prior knowledge on the topics evaluated. Thetest was composed of four major steps. The steps were Pre-Test, where the priorknowledge of the students before being taught by the AR application. The nextstep was the interaction of students with the AR application using both staticand dynamic contents. Then a post-test was conducted to determine how much eachstudent learned about the topics taught. Finally, a survey was performed toassess the students’ perception of the learning process. From the results ofthe survey, it can be concluded that the AR application using static anddynamic content is effective in teaching.
It can also be observed that there isa difference in the learning level of the students where dynamic and staticcontents were used. Students also preferred learning with dynamic contents thanstatic contents. According the research conducted by 7, augmentedreality (AR) could enhance students’ performance in learning and academicachievement. The study was aimed to determine the influence of AR technology onthe learning effectiveness of students. Three types of materials were used toteach concepts of the moon to students participated, which includes 2D animationmaterials, 3D simulation materials and AR materials. The 2D animation materialswere designed using Flash technology, it has proven itself to be an effective2D animation learning system throughout the years. The 3D simulation materialswere taken from Google Earth while the AR materials were developed specificallyfor the study based on the Total Immersion D’Fusion AR software package.
Thisstudy was participated by 104 junior university students from a university inTaiwan, including 41 males and 63 females. The participants were divided intothree groups and they were randomly assigned to the AR, 2D and 3D group. Theconcepts were taught with the materials according to the groups assigned. Thelearners are required to describe the learning task after completing each stageof the experiment, attend interviews recorded by the instructor in class, fillup questionnaires and do an online post-test achievement test to examine theirprogress for data collection.
In conclusion, all three approaches are helpfulfor the improvement in learning. However, the difference between each group isnot significant. Thus, although AR can improve learning effectiveness, theadvantages of AR materials require further exploration. However, according tothe survey, students in the 3D and AR group are more concentrated and motivatedin learning. In a nutshell, using AR materials can enhance the students’learning performance and academic achievement.
Virtual perception is a prerequisite for thefunctioning of augmented reality (AR) in the educational landscape 8. Jerabek and histeam aims to analyse the specifics of visual perception in AR and list thecharacteristics of AR system from the perceptual perspective. The ability ofthe system to work with different channels can be assessed from the perceptualviewpoint. The added information can be described by 4 parameters 8. The firstparameter includes the graphical data reflecting cognitive difficulty ofprocessing information. The second parameter is the dynamism of images whichconsists of static, kinetic and dynamic images. The next parameter isspatiality, which is linked to the spatial depth.
The last parameter is colourinformation, and it is linked to a display device representing AR. Inconclusion, AR is an innovative didactical tool that contributes to moreeffective education activities through enhancing the system. It will thenbecome a suitable tool for supporting cognitive processes in differenteducational landscapes. Based on the properties of AR, the presumption is made,which the combination of the real world with augmented information in differentforms can increases the informative value of the content.9 had suggestedthat using an AR game-based learning system will affect the effectiveness of aneducational landscape. Malone suggested that games can increase motivation,therefore it is an essential feature for the lives of children and teenagers.An AR game-based learning system for elementary science education concerningwith the marine life food chain was constructed for this study. The purpose ofthe study is to determine the effectiveness of the AR game-based learningsystem to facilitate teamwork skills, learning motivation and learningachievement of the elementary school children.
The AR system was developed byusing ARToolKit, Visual Studio C++, 3D Max and Adobe Illustrator. The game’s purpose is for learners to findappropriate baits for certain fish by exploring fishing areas and to form asmany food chains as possible by collecting different ocean species. Ten collegestudents participated in in five tests, where pair of students worked togetherto evaluate the functions and UI design of the gaming system. The researchersasked the students to fill out a questionnaire after each test, and revised theUI and functions of the system according before the next pair of students.After the five consecutive tests, the system was modified again based onsuggestions of all the students. Then the students participated in the secondphase of program evaluation. Then an interview was conducted to collectinformation about the revised system. The students provided positive feedbacksabout the system to improve the gameplay experience.
As conclusion, this paperwas focused on the design and used of technology in an AR game-based learningsystem. The results of the system prototype evaluation showed that students arefairly interested in the system. However, the system UI design and gameplayneed to be modified before the system is launched.By using Augmented Reality(AR), higher educationstudents’ maths learning could be enhanced 10.
To find out the result, Coimbra and his team conducted the test in auniversity’s Electrotechnical Engineering Evening Classes. 13 tablets and 13user manuals were handed to every student in the class. The contents of thestudy program of the unit course were being progressively presented, and allthe students followed the oral explanations carefully, complemented by the ARcontents available. Coimbra and his team observed that about half of thestudents were curious on testing the new AR contents with their own mobilephones and they did it in a very quick way. This evidences that the ARapplication can be seen as a system for enhancing the learning experience ofmath classes. At the end of the test, 10 of the 13 students answered to aninterview which took about 5 minutes. Majority of the students have not had anyprevious contact with any forms of AR contents in classes. Nonetheless, all ofthem stated that whey would greatly accept the integration of AR technologiesin Mathematical Analysis because it facilitates learning.
Not only that, thestudents showed great interest and curiosity in the software potentialities ofAR. Almost all of the students agreed that AR greatly enhances their learningexperience, and though that this was the best math’s classes they have everhad. In conclusion, we can sustain that in this context, AR is an enhancer formath’s learning, even though Coimbra and his team are aware that there are manyaspects that should be improved. The researchers believe that after improvingthe software, the effect of the software would be greatly improved.
Thus, itcan be concluded that 3D technologies, such as AR can greatly enhance theteaching and learning of mathematics of higher education students, or in otherwords, AR can increase the access to knowledge of many other students. Mental training 11 is one of theways of psychological preparation in sport. This research is conducted with theaim to develop prototype simulator dedicated to sports education for thecompetitors who practices combats sports. The researcher used a Kinect sensorfor the Xbox One to track the movement of the competitors, and an Androidtablet will be used in presenting the information along with a sighted glassesVuzix Star1200XLD. These devices combined will visualize the virtual models ofan image of an athlete performing throw. The reference suiting to the learnerwill be showed.
After that, the athlete will give feedback to the researcherabout the AR system. The feedbacks given includes the information of thesequence of the moves, the execution of the moves and the parts that can beimproved. The coach can also receive the video of the moves executed by thelearner, the video of the executed moves with the imposed learner’s image as askeleton, and the information whether the moves was properly executed. If thedeviations displayed were different with the ideal execution, the learners willbe given suggestions on how to improve the execution of moves. In the end, asatisfaction survey is carried out. It is done to determine the level of theuser’s satisfaction after using the AR system, which is important for theimprovement of the system. In conclusion, the effectiveness of mental trainingusing AR system cannot be determined definitively yet 11.
Therefore, anextended degree of testing must be implemented to verify with the learners andthe coaches.Students’ learning could be collaborating MobileAugmented Reality (AR) with traditional learning materials 12. A learningapplication was developed to enable students to learn collaboratively withtheir mobile phones. The result is determined by the students’ learningperformance after learning. The study was conducted with 120 IT students, witha mean age of 19.5.
The learners were split into two groups, which are theexperimental group and the control group. Collaborative Mobile AugmentedLearning Application (CoMARLA) was used in one of the topics of the ICT courseby the experimental group, whereas the control group learned using thetraditional approach. Before the learning sessions, pre-testing was conductedto determine the level of knowledge of the learners in the specific subject.After the learning sessions, a post-test was conducted to determine the effect ofCoMARLA.
Analysis of the test showed that there were noticeable differencesbetween conventional learning and CoMARLA learning. The experimental groupoutperformed the control group by 9% after calculations were made. On top ofthat, different performances were also noticed between male and female studentsbased on the learning methods which did not happen among female students. Inconclusion, the tool could be used to help learnings to learn with greaterefficiency. Researches prove that Malaysian students have lowmotivation in learning ICT course due to several reasons, such as lack ofeffective learning applications and lack of learning practice 13. To address theproblem, Hanafi have carried out a study to examine the impact of mobileaugmented reality learning application (MARLA) on students’ motivation inlearning an ICT course. The sample consisted of 120 students majoring in socialscience with an average age of 20 years. The students were divided into 2groups, namely the experimental group and the control group.
The students’ motivationin learning will be the measured factor. MARLA were used by the experimentalgroup to learn Computer System, where the control group used a differentapplication in their computers. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) wasused to measure the student’s motivation before and after the learningsessions. An analysis of covariance was performed, which shows that there was ahuge effect attributed to the genders only, with male students attaining meanscore of 4.24 while female students attaining 3.90 for the motivationconstruct. However, no such effect was observed attributed to the learningmethods, as proven by the mean scores of 4.08 and 4.
07 of the experimentalgroups and control respectively. This suggests that both methods were equallyeffective. On top of that, an interaction effect was observed between genderand learning methods, with male students attaining various levels of motivationbased on learning method. Perhaps, MARLA can be used to help students learnwith greater motivation, but proper planning will be required to guarantee itssuccess. Augmented Reality has become more popular and it’stested by many researchers to determine if it could improve the student’slearning process, and help them to visualise concepts better 14. AR is atechnology that enables computer graphics to overlay onto the real world,allowing users to see the real world with virtual images attached onto realworld objects. To find out the effect of AR on learners, an experiment wasconducted. An AR system was developed and tested with 37 first year mechanicalengineering students at UNITEN.
Two systems were setup in the researchlaboratory of the university. Each student was allowed spend around fifteenminutes to use the AR system. After the testing, interviews and questionnaireswere used to measure the ability of the system, which includes the visual cues,how well the system did in assisting them in understanding the concepts and theeffectiveness of the method in their learning. Based on the results of thestudy, weaker students who used the AR learning system had remarkably betterunderstanding on the subject. However, some of the students had obstaclesinteracting with the system as they are not familiar with the user interface ofthe system. The students seemed to be satisfied using the system and thoughtthat the system can indeed help them in their learning.
Generally, moststudents thought that the system to be very useful and only a small number ofstudents thought that the system is not useful. As conclusion, the AR learningsystem did benefit the students as they found it to be an interesting way oflearning.According to 15, AugmentedReality (AR)provides several benefits and advantages to students in medicalschools. Augmented Reality can record the full 3D quality of an object, andallow the users to easily see this as an image that is truly 3D. AR images ofhuman organs can be used as materials to teach students in medical schooldissections, and even the latest surgical techniques, surgical tools as well asenvironments. AR images and illustrations of the human anatomy can be deliveredto the students in real-time and full colour.
Teachers are able to guide thestudents with medical data and instructional embodiment in an immersed learningenvironment. Students are also able to experience and develop different sensorymodalities and perceptions as they interact with the AR images. AR imagesliterally hand in space, and teachers could teach as well as test students’knowledge and understanding of the subject. The AR system could also provide”x-ray vision” for students, giving a clear visual understanding of theanatomy.
Based on the survey, students reported that learning is greatlyenhanced with the intuitive “x-ray vision”. Students’ skills are able to beenhanced by interacting with the AR system, as well as their mentalrepresentations in real-time applications. By PROVIDING immediate 3Dinformation, AR enhances the understanding of human anatomy which could not beefficiently learned with the conventional systems. In a nutshell, the future ofeducational and biomedical applications are pointed this way, by the newemerging AR technologies.