The processor or CPU is the brain of a computer whichperforms calculations which enables the computer to function the way it does.The main job of the processor is to Request information from devices, Modifyand create new information and send information back to devices. Processors aretaken in the measurement Hertz or Hz which is the number of calculations thatthe processor can perform each second. They are connected to a motherboard byeither being inserted into a socket or slot.A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in acomputer. The motherboard is a computer’s central communications backboneconnectivity point, through which all components and external peripheralsconnect.BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a personalcomputer’s microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after youturn it on.
It also manages data flow between the computer’s operating systemand attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse andprinter.The PSU is a component that supplies power to a computer.Most personal computers can be plugged into standard electrical outlets. Thepower supply then pulls the required amount of electricity and converts the ACcurrent to DC current. It also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes andsurges common in most electrical systems. Not all power supplies, however, doan adequate voltage-regulation job, so a computer is always susceptible tolarge voltage fluctuations.The main purpose of a heat sink is to expel heat from agenerating source. Heat sinks work through the process of conductive andconvection heat transfer.
Heat sinks are a passive form of cooling, as theyhave no moving parts and require no power. In most cases, heat sinks are usedin conjunction with fans. A fan is a hardware device that keeps the overall computer,or a computer device cool by circulating air to or from the computer orcomponent. Parallel PortsIn the early years of computers, the parallel port, the mostcommon interface on a computer that is intended primarily for printers andother devices. The downloaded data eight bits at a time over eight separatelines in a parallel cable with a DB-25 female connector, part of D-Sub miniatureconnector style.Speed ??data transfer is limited to 150 Kbps (kilobits persecond) and could only send a range of ten meters.
Standard parallel ports onlytransmit data unless it was a two-port, which most computers are equipped withthe 1994th Serial PortsSerial ports, also called COM ports used to connect devicessuch as modems via a serial interface connection means that a data bit in theorder of one second. It is located on the back of a PC.Especially, it was a 9-pin and 25-pin male size. Thetransfer speed is limited to 57KBps and a maximum cable length of 50 meters. USBUSB ports are run on computers since 1995 and becamestandard on most computers in 1998. They are another type of serial port withthe name of that coming to a wide range of different devices such as keyboards,printers, scanners and mice to connect to. It is designed to plug and play, aforce that both the parallel and serial ports to a standard to be defective.
It is also expanding the use of USB hubs USB ports alongwith data if necessary, another option is missing from its predecessors. USBhas many specifications that the performance increases. The first incarnation hada transmission speed of 12 MBps (megabytes per second) and up to 480 MBps inversion 2.
0 makes it much faster than the older form factors increased. Thistechnology also covers the other external devices like mobiles, cameras andalmost all other technology related items. A hard disk drive or HDD is a non-volatile memory device thatpermanently stores and retrieves data on a computer. The hard drive is asecondary storage device that consists of one or more platters in which data iswritten by using a magnetic head, -inside of an air-sealed casing.
Internalhard disks reside in a drive bay, connect to the motherboard using an ATA,SCSI, or SATA cable, and are all powered by a connection to the power supply. SATA- Stands for ‘Serial Advanced Technology Attachment’ or’Serial ATA’. They are used for connecting host bus adapters for example thecomputer to mass storage devices such as a hard drive. SATA cables are thin andlong and includes 7-pins. They are now being used on most new computers. IDE- This stands for ‘Integrated Drive Electronics’.
Thistype of connection which is used to connect optical drives and hard drivestogether as well as supplying a connection to the motherboard EIDE- ‘EIDE’ stands for ‘Enhanced Integrated DriveElectronics’. It makes the computer and the storage driver have a standardelectronic communication. It also allows for faster access to the hard drive. Master/slave- The master drive responses to the commands andcontrols the slave drive.
It’s considered as the first drive and the slavedrive is referred to as the second drive. As the slave drive controls the otherdevices. InternalMemory (RAM, ROM and Cache)RAM is a fast-temporary type of memory in which programs,applications and data are stored and when a computer loses power all datastored in the RAM is lost. Here are some examples of what’s stored in RAM: – The operatingsystem – Applications – The graphical userinterface (GUI) ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user.
ROM keeps its memory after the computer is turned off unlike RAM. For example,ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned onagain. Cache memory is a specialized form of computer memory. Cacheis designed to speed up the computer by prioritizing its contents for quickaccess. It works by the cache holding copies of recently accessed data such asweb pages and pictures on web pages.
It keeps this data ready to appear ontoyour screen within fractions of a second. So, instead of needing your computerto go to the original web page the cache offers you the copy from your own harddrive. This caching memory speeds up page loading because the next time yourequest that page, it is accessed from the cache on your computer instead offrom the distant Web server. Network CardA network card connects your computer to a local network orthe Internet. The card translates computer data into electrical signals whichis sent through the network. The signals are compatible with the network, socomputers can easily exchange information. Because of the popularity of theInternet and networks virtually all desktop and notebook PCs have some form ofinterface card included but if not, you can also add one.
A network cardfunctions as a middleman between your computer and the data network. Such aswhen you log in to a website, the computer passes the site information to thenetwork card, which then converts the address into electrical impulses. Networkcables carry these impulses to a Web server across the Internet, which thenresponds by sending a Web page back to you, in the form of electronic signals.The card receives these signals and turns them into data that your PC displays. Graphics CardA graphics card is a display adapter or video card installedwithin most computing devices to display graphical data with high clarity,colour, definition and overall appearance.
A graphics card provideshigh-quality visual display by processing and executing graphical data usingadvanced graphical techniques, features and functions. A graphics card is designedto remove the graphical processing tasks from the CPU or RAM. It includes adedicated graphical processing unit or GPU and dedicated RAM that helps processgraphics quickly. Like most processors, a graphics card also has a dedicatedheat sink to keep the heat out of the GPU. A graphics card enables the displayof 3-D images, image rasterization, higher pixel ration, a broader range ofcolours and more. A graphics card includes expansion ports such as AGP, HDMIand TV inputs.
A graphics card can be integrated within the motherboard or beadded on as an extension card. Output DevicesAn output device is any device used to send data from acomputer to another device or user. Most computer data output that is meant forhumans is in the form of audio or video. Thus, most output devices used byhumans are in these categories. Examples include monitors, projectors,speakers, headphones and printers.The monitor displays the computer’s user interfaceand open programs, allowing the user to interact with the computer, typicallyusing the keyboard and mouse.A printer is a device that accepts text and graphicoutput from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually tostandard size sheets of paper. Printers vary in size, speed, sophistication,and cost.
In general, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolutioncolour printing.A camera is a device for recording visual images inthe form of photographs, film, or video signals. Input DevicesAn input device is a hardware device that sends data to acomputer which allows you to interact with and control the computer. The most commonly used or primary inputdevices on a computer are the keyboard and mouse.
A scanner is a device that captures images fromphotographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computerediting and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types andfor scanning black-and-white only, or colour. Very high-resolution scanners areused for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower resolution scannersare adequate for capturing images for computer display.
A plotter is a printer that interprets commands froma computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens.Unlike a regular printer, the plotter can draw continuous point-to-point linesdirectly from vector graphics files or commands.Twisted pair cables are quite literally a pair ofinsulated wires that are twisted together to help reduce noise from outsidesources. Coaxial cables are high-frequency transmission cables made upof a single solid-copper core in which data is transferred electrically overthe inner conductor and has 80X more transmission capacity than twisted paircables. An optical fibre cable, also known as fibre optic cable, is anassembly like an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibresthat are used to carry light.
Backing StorageAdvantages of all disks, pen drives, optical media and flashmemory cards are that they are both cheap and light meaning that they areeasily portable, but a disadvantage is that they do not contain as large of astorage as a hard drive and but examples such as the pen drive will usuallyhave a higher transfer speed than a hard drive but not a SSD. P2 Backupswould be stored on a separate hard drive which its sole purpose is to copy thehard drive so there becomes a copy which ensures that if one hard drive failsthere will be a backup ready for use. Another way of backup is with cloudstorage. Files can be directly uploaded to cloud storage which remotely storesyour information on a server on the internet. Another method of backup is witha passport. These devices can easily store large amounts of data at a cheapprice with a 1TB passport costing just under £40.
00. Backups should be doneonce a week and only important information should be backed up such asdocuments as copying an entire hard drive would take a lot of time and storagespace. P3 SoftwareFor network monitoring I have chosen an expensive buteffective software to provide the best protection against any cyber-attackswhich is a costing £1,195 but will prevent most known attacks or breachesbefore they occur. For DDOS protection I have chosen the Free cloudflarepackage which includes Access to account Audit Logs, Unmetered Mitigation ofDDoS, Global CDN, Shared SSL certificate and 3-page rules. Cloudflare willensure that the servers and website will not go down due to a DDOS attack withthe best protection against attacks on the market at no cost. With theimplementation of Audit logs in both cloudflare and the network monitoringsoftware I have chosen, it will also ensure that no unauthorised employees orclients will be able to access any unnecessary information or documents. Withthe implementation of these software’s it will ensure that the network is bestprotected against all sorts of attacks.
All computers will be running windows10 pro edition costing only £20 a key. On administrator computers they willalso have access to Linux which provides a large range of tools for the user.Also, office 365 should be included which will help the employees complete anytasks that they may face in their daily job. HardwareFor the client being a small sized business, I haveappropriately chosen a relatively cheap server, the HPE ProLiant ML30 Gen9Server which costs £811.40. This server comes equipped with an Intel® Xeon®E3-1200 v5 processor with four cores. The server also comes with an 8MB L3processor cache with a speed of 4.0GHz.
The maximum memory is a large 64GB with4 DIMM slots for memory having the memory type of DDR4 UDIMM. The server alsocomes with a 1Gb 332i Ethernet Adapter network controller and comes with a LFFSAS/SATA/SSD drive. This server both comes at a low and affordable price for asmall business and will be able to complete any task given at ease by the usersof the network.Another component that will be required is a network adapter.I have chosen a TP-LINK TL-WDN4800 PCIe Wireless Card which costs £20 each butprovide extremely fast network speeds. Basic Ethernet cables will also beplugged into every computer to ensure for speeds quicker than by using a Wi-Ficonnection if required.
The cable connectors used will be basic RJ45 connectors.For an internet connection I have chosen the Virgin Media business editionwhich comes with unlimited UK calls costing £55 per month with no line rentalfee. This comes with a fast connection of up to 350Mbps download and up to20Mbps Upload speed with unlimited usage which is suitable for the business andprovides either a dynamic IP address or up to 5 static IPs. Network SharingNetwork sharing will also be implemented, and all files willbe stored in the centralised server for easy access for anyone needing toaccess a document or any sort of information. MaintenanceEach computer will be maintained monthly checking for anyhardware faults that may exist and therefore parts can then be replaced whichwill ensure that the machines are kept efficient. Devices will also be updatedweekly to ensure that the latest updates of each programme are installed oneach device. This will help to keep the devices running as quick as possible.
IntegrationAll systems will be interconnected in a bus topology to ensurethat each machine can communicate with each other and therefore allow for easeof file transfer in the workplace. AccessibilityAccessibility features come standard on windows 10 whichinclude Narrator, Magnifier, On-screen Keyboard, High Contrast, Sticky Keys andFilter Keys. These programmes greatly assist people with disabilities andensure that they can use the system to the same standard as any other user. P4The first picture detailsbefore the operation to repair the computer was started, this picture showswith case on with all components still inside the computer system. This photo shows thecomputer system with the cover taken off with all components still inside thesystem. This photo shows me with ananti-static wrist band on which ensures that I do not get electrocuted or thecomputer system does not fry due to an electrical current.
Without ananti-static wristband electrical impulse will still flow through your bodywhich may lead to an electrocution Hard DriveDisconnect the power cable and IDE interface cablefrom the back of the drive. Remember where each cable and connector go becauseyou must reconnect them to the new drive.There might also be a small audio cableconnected to the drive. Detach this cable from the back of the driveRemoving the drive cables If the drive is attached to the casewith screws, remove all screws on each side of the drive. Keepthe screws because you will need them later.Removing the screws Slide the drive forward through the front of thecomputer and remove it.
Removing the drive Slide the tip of a flat blade screwdriver inbetween the side of the bay insert and the body of the computer.Using the screwdriver, apply light pressure to oneside of the bay insert while pulling it out slightly.Do the same thing on the other side, and remove thebay insert.Removing the bay insert Align the new drive in the bay opening and slide itin until it is even with the front of the computer, aligning the screw holes inthe drive with the holes in the computer. If the drive attaches to the computerwith a plastic latch, snap and lock it into place.Aligning the holes If the drive is attached using screws, attach thedrive to the drive bay using all the screws.
CD and DVD drives are susceptibleto vibration, so it is important to seat all screws snugly against the metaldrive bay.Attaching the drive RAM When removing RAM first ensurethat you have an antistatic wristband put on, then undo the clips at each sideof the ram slots which will allow the RAM to easily be pulled out. When installing new ram make surethat you have positioned it the correct way, then simply place it in the slotand redo the clips to ensure it stays firmly in place. CPU Firstly, Locate the CPU’s fan and unplug its powercable from the motherboard. Turn the head of each of the “legs”surrounding the fan and heat sink to unlock it from the motherboard, and thenpull each leg straight up to disconnect it. If your processor has screwsinstead of legs, simply unscrew them.
Gently wiggle the heat sink and fan whilepulling upward on the entire device to remove it from the CPU. Remove the latchholding the processor and lift the retaining piece out of the way. Lift the processor straight out of the socket,holding it by its edges. Simplyinsert the new CUP making sure that you line up the two guiding notches on thesocket with the notches along the edge of your chip. With the chip in thesocket, you can lower the retention bracket back into place. Make sure that youslip the notch at the end of the bracket around the single screw at the base ofthe socket before you use the metal lever to lock the CPU into place.
To installthe heatsink simply place the cooler on top of your CPU and then press the pushpins into the holes at each corner of the socket. Once the pins have beenpushed through to the other side of the motherboard, press the black lockingtab down into the mounting pin and twist it toward the centre of the CPU,following the arrow engraved into the push pin, to lock the heatsink intoplace. GPUFirstly, Locate and unscrew/unclip the graphics card from the case’smounting bracket. Then Gently pull on the expansion slot lever to unlock thecard from the slot. Slide the card out of the graphics slot, and remove it fromthe computer. You can now install your newgraphics card into the open and unobstructed PCI-E x16 slot. Firmly insert thecard into the slot, then push down the plastic lock on the end of the PCI-Eslot to hold it in place.
Next, use a screw to secure the graphic card’s metalretention bracket to your PC’s case. You can reuse the same screw(s) that heldthe cover bracket or your former graphics card in place. Hard Drive Firstly, Take the hard drive fromwhere it rested in the tower. Do this by gently pulling it out of the tower.
Next remove the IDE ribbon cable, this will run from your motherboard. Nextremove the power connector and gently remove the hard drive from the case. To put in a new hard drive youmust plug in the IDE ribbon cable, then plug in the power connector and placethe new hard drive into the tower where it will rest. P5Preventivemaintenance is defined as the proactive maintenance of equipment before a faultor failure occurs. Preventive maintenance involves routine tasks to ensure thatyour system is running optimally and to avoid problems before they arise. Thereare several preventative measures you can take which include installing Windowsupdates, scanning for viruses and malware, and running cleaning programs.Anti-virus and anti-malware scans should be run at least once a week and theseprogrammes should constantly be updated to combat new viruses.Remedialmaintenance or corrective maintenance Corrective maintenance is any maintenanceperformed to return equipment to proper working order.
Depending on the contextof its use it may refer to maintenance due to a breakdown, or maintenanceidentified through a condition monitoring program. Corrective maintenance isperformed when a breakdown is either planned or unplanned. In this case,planned corrective maintenance is likely to be the result of a run-to-failuremaintenance plan, while unplanned corrective maintenance could be due to abreakdown not stopped by preventative maintenance, or a breakdown due to a lackof a maintenance plan. Unplanned, maintenance, like reactive maintenance, ismuch more costly than planned maintenance.
Preventativemaintenance products include lubrication of moving parts, Replacement of wornor performance degraded parts and adjustments and tests should be taken. Theseare examples of preventative maintenance productions. The ElectronicRecords Management Systems is a computer program or set of programs designed totrack and store records. The software can be used to manage the creation andmaintenance of records within classification schemes, apply retention anddisposal schedules, and control access and use. The purposeof maintenance is to ensure that all equipment required for production isoperating at 100% efficiency always. I would choose preventative maintenance asit uses less manpower overall as systems are only checked one a month or evenlonger, which will mean that it will cost overall less money for the businessas they are replaced before anything can go wrong with the system. P6 Planning helps an organization chart a course for the achievement of itsgoals.
The process begins with reviewing the current operations of theorganization and identifying what needs to be improved operationally in theupcoming year. From there, planning involves envisioning the results theorganization wants to achieve, and determining the steps necessary to arrive atthe intended destination