research has shown that over 30 % of shipping accidents are caused by poor
weather, and an additional 25% reasons are still unknown. So, for the safety of
marine transportation, it is very important to study these poor weather
conditions which lead to an accident and come up with some solutions.
weather conditions could be natural phenomena such as current, tidal stream,
severe wind, reduced visibility (fog, heavy snow, and rain), stormy seas,
darkness etc. affecting the ship or those controlling it.
Waves and severe wind:
prediction of the sea surface is very complex, under changing weather
conditions. On the sea surface, there are random waves of various heights,
lengths and periods. Also at the same time, more waves emerge frequently. There are two main types of ocean waves: wind
sea and swells. The local wind generates the wind sea waves and they can
further propagate without any external energy which results them to grow into a
swell. Meteorologist work with different parameters, such as wave height (H),
wave period (T) and wave direction (D). All these represent a given sea state.
A high wave height is a major threat for ships, yet some other ships are
affected by relatively low wave heights and high wave steepness sea states.
Several major ship accidents are also caused by narrow wave spectrum which is
generated by the nonlinear coupling of swell and wind sea. The wave energy from
one wave system is enhanced and transformed into the other wave system and it
results in the formation of steep swell, with a large wave energy and extreme
The marine transportations need very high attentiveness and
high visibility but due to some bad weather conditions such as heavy snow or
heavy rain the visibility gets reduced which makes pilot inconvenient to
control the ship as he cannot see the hazards on the way clearly. And that can
result in the accident of ship. Also in some areas, there is fog which is the
major factor in reducing the visibility of marine.
Storm seas and hurricanes:
Storms and hurricanes at sea are harrowing experiences. And also, they are an
unavoidable part of life on the water. The walls of water stand like a tower
and are driven by powerful winds which slam into the ship. Towering walls of
water, driven by powerful winds, slam into the ship. A major storm can batter
even the largest, sturdiest vessels. And they’re an unavoidable part of life on
the water. It is very difficult for the captain to dodge every storm.
So, we have seen a large number of marine accidents occurred due to these