The have all the members to be persuaded, punished,

The main element for this
portfolio is to research the reason as to why motivation is important within
organisations; give examples of two theories that state why people should be motivated
in their organisation. The two theories will be compared and contrasted with
the two leadership theories, also how conflict arises in a workplace and how to
avoid conflict in organisations. Lastly, discuss about how different
organisations require different ethics.

Motivation is very important
in all organisations; it comes in many different ways ‘motivation can be
described as the direction and persistence of action’ (Mullins
and Christy, 2013, p245). To complete this it enables people to know
what their goals are and helps them to fulfil a need as an individual. For some
people money can motivate them to work harder in their workplace ‘workers would
be motivated by obtaining the highest possible wages through working in the most
efficient and productive way’ (Mullins and Christy,
2013, p249). However others like being rewarded for their efforts.
Rewards come in many ways and organisations can reward their employees by
providing good training so it helps them gain good knowledge and this will
enhance their skills; they can also reward them with higher job opportunities.
Motivation is not how you work in an organisation or the performance you show,
it’s more how you achieve your internal and external factors as an individual.
Members of the organisation are influenced by the relationship that motivates
them to gain from working hard and the benefits they overcome. If there is good
management in an organisation it would be helpful to have all the members to be
persuaded, punished, rewarded and controlled so they can meet the requirements
that are expected from them.

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Maslow’s hierarchy theory (1954)
is divided in a pyramid where all the needs are levelled into different stages
from lower needs to higher needs.

They can only achieve them
when all the lower needs are satisfied; he believes that if one need is
fulfilled, only then people on move onto the next needs. All the needs are
separated in to five levels they are Self Actualisation, Esteem Needs, Social
Needs, Safety Needs and The Physiological Needs. All of these theories are
vital in all organisations and also inspires workers to do well, I personally
think that The Self Actualisation need is an important theory.  It’s the first theory at the top of the
pyramid as it is one of the highest achievement anyone wants to gain. Every
person should work their way through from the bottom of the pyramid starting
from The Physiological Needs as this is a step by step guidance to be able to
achieve all the other needs. All these theories are beneficial to anyone that
have lack of motivation in their workplace. ‘The common feature… and esteem
needs’ (Maslow. 1970, p22). As an individual you need to be able to know what
your priorities are; when you are working in an organisation and be able to
provide every service you possibly can. Maslow also states that ‘the hierarchy
is relatively…in a particular culture’ (Mullins and
Christy, 2013, p253). He explains that as an individual there are many
different lifestyles that can influence staff in different aspects of learning
strategies. To improve your higher needs every individual should be able to
achieve their lower needs first so they can slowly grow all their higher needs.
Self-actualization helps every individual to know what their weaknesses are and
encourages them to improve and make them their strengths. Everyone has the
abilities to move up in the hierarchy if they work really hard; however if
their circumstances have changed then this will have an effect and motivate
them to do well. Maslow explains that motivation can be improved when you show
love (when some people have had bad experience in their childhood that might
affect them in their workplace), other social needs and esteem to all the
members of the organisation.

Herzberg’s two factor theory
(1966) consists of negative hygiene factors and positive motivators ‘humans have two different sets of needs
and that the different elements of the work situation satisfies or dissatisfies
these needs’ (Lundberg, Gudmundson and Andersson,
2009).  He developed that
organisations should introduce direct motivators that would motivate workers to
work harder. However hygiene factors that would de-motivate employees would not
motivate them to work harder. If organisations provides good pay and safe
working conditions it will make employees come to work but it will not make
them work harder than they already are. Herzberg’s believed that motivating
employees can be done in many different stages such as job enlargement that can
help the employee complete challenging tasks to know what they are capable off.
They can also make their own decisions to have more power.

I personally feel that
motivation can work when you potentially feel that you want to achieve
something and you will work hard to make it a successful outcome. Based on the
theories I have explained above I feel that Maslow’s hierarchy theory is a
strong motivation theory to everyone as it helps you to understand the five
important needs as to why motivation is an important aspect in an organisation
and to people itself, it encourages you to stay organised and know what
capabilities you think you have as an individual and also helps you develop
your needs. I believe that to be motivated you must have a reason or a need to
be able to reach the goal you’re aiming for. There must be a good way or a plan
that can help you to be able to reach that goal or a motive. When you have
reached all the levels it will then help you to reach to the top level. If you
motivate yourself in a workplace it will automatically motivate everyone else.
As Maslow explains in order for you to achieve all your needs you need to start
from the beginning and work your way through to the top. Whereas Herzberg’s theory
is also motivating and can have a huge impact on those that needs to improve on
their motivation. He also states that being a motivator; you will have more
responsivity, you’ll have more interest in the work and you will also get good
feedback on your good work. 

























Assignment 2

Leadership comes in many
different formats, most effective way can be achieved by making sure good
management is engaged by all the members of an organisation, all the goals and
objectives should also be achieved. ‘In the distinction between leadership…mark
of the leader’ (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2013, p 676). These good examples shows that leadership is a
widely distributed phenomenon. The manager of
the organisation should be able to provide good relationships towards everyone
so it motivates them to do well in the business. Leadership helps to provide
motivation, enhance their communication skills, work as a team and also develop
their empowerment ‘managers must
have leadership skills but that leadership is just one of the several functions
of the manager’ (McCartney and Campbell, 2006). Mullin states that leadership can be understood by an
individual in a straightforward way ‘getting others to follow, or getting
people to do things willingly’ (Mullins and Christy,
2013, p369). This suggests everyone can potentially do it to achieve
something for themselves.

Two leadership theories that
will be compared are Theory X, Theory Y from McGregor’s management styles of
human nature and behaviour at work and Transformational Management theory from
Burns. It has proved that Theory X and Y have benefited with better management
and leadership. McGregor explains that in Theory people dislike work, they need
motivation and they always avoid their responsibility a lot. McGregor’s also
state that ‘the average people is lazy and has an inherit dislike of words’ (Mullins and Christy, 2013, p457). Some other symptoms
are there are some people that need controlling, directed and punished if the
organisations have objectives they need to achieve; if they let people do what
they can then this will affect the organisation so it is important the manager
sets goals for everyone in order for them to work hard and reach all their
aims. Motivation can appear where there are security needs and physiological.
If people at work want to be able to complete all these needs then they should
be able to provide themselves goals so it helps them work through it slowly.
Managers can motivate their workers by providing rewards and benefits.

On the other hand Theory Y
states that people like working, they are very creative and they take their
responsibility very seriously. For some people they like working and they find
it a relaxing place to do everything they know about; some will have commitments
for themselves so it helps them achieve them. McGregor’s states that ‘the
intellectual potential…partially utilised and’ and also ‘motivation occurs at
the affiliation…physiological and security needs’ (Mullins
and Christy, 2013, p457). This shows that if an individual potentially
has the commitment to show how motivated they are in the workplace which refers
to Maslow’s theory of motivation can encourage everyone to achieve they are
required by the organisation. Theory Y is an appropriate theory when there are
commitments in an organisation where goals have been achieved by all the
members such as in voluntary and charity organisations.  

Transformational managements
(Burns 1978) come in three different categories and they are the organisational
structure, organisational trust and self-esteem. With leadership self-awareness
you can develop your skills and achieve your goals by working on them. In order
to achieve this there are many assessments they have to complete. Being able to
understand what your strengths, limitations and also your emotions are. Burns identified
‘persons with certain motives…motives of followers’ (Barker,
Sullivan and Emery, 2006, p15). This suggests that to be a good
leadership, you have to be able to motivate and reach the goal you are aiming
for so that it helps you be satisfied in the organisation. Leadership can arise
in situations that have conflicting purposes and competition. Description of
Transformational leadership ‘it is important to emphasize size… high levels of
performance’ (Barker, Sullivan and Emery, 2006, p16).
Burns emphases on high needs such as self-esteem and self-actualization as they
very important needs for motivation and leadership.

Managing the organisational
structure is an important process to all organisations, it helps you interact
well with the person you speaking to and also helps you excel skills.
Organisational trust is also very important as this helps you know that trust
is very important in organisations as it helps the employer and the employee to
interact well with each other. Lastly self-esteem is also identified by Maslow
and Burns; they believe self-esteem is extremely important in all organisations
as it helps identify what your strengths and weaknesses are and helps you to
excel on them.

Comparing both the leadership
theories I have come to a conclusion that they both are important theories of
motivation and good leadership. They both have very similar needs and
expectations that apply to everyone in the workplace and this helps them
achieve them by setting goals and achievements and also knowing what their
strengths and weaknesses are. McGregor states theories X and Y, these theories
are essential to those that have difficulties of being motivated in an
organisation. Theory X shows that not everyone is motivated in the organisation
they need encouragement to be able to complete tasks that they are required
for. However Theory Y shows that some people understand what their
responsibilities are and they will work hard in order to achieve them.
Similarly transformational management inspires people to do well by leading
them with good management and motivating them consistently so they are capable
of completing all tasks that are essential from the organisation. ‘Transformational
leaders inspire…connected to their leader’ (,

Providing good management and
being able to engage well with others shows that you have a good relationship
and this will motivate everyone around the workplace, therefore you have to
keep everyone up to date with what they have achieved and also set targets to
those that fail to meet their requirements. To deal with conflict in
organisations I believe that leadership is a valuable resource; it helps
everyone stay motivated around the business and this is also beneficial to
everyone to work and also develop on the skills they need improving on. ‘The
positive moderating… leadership in diverse workplace’ (, 2016).

Assignment 3

Conflict can take place when
there are disagreements between all the members in an organisation. ‘Within an
organisation, conflicts… individuals groups and departments’ (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2013, p726).
These are some of the reasons why conflicts might occur in organisations they
are personalities, different opinions, competitors about people, different
perceptions, poor communication, salaries, goals, responsibilities and many
more. Conflict is not always dysfunctional in the workplace, there are many
ways this can be avoided. Conflict can change people in the workplace and it’s
not always bad, it leads to development and change; when there are situations
of conflict it brings pain to the workplace and this makes people react and
therefore it’s important and beneficial to have situations of conflict in the
workplace as without it the organisation will go stale. There are at least three
perspectives on conflicts that will be explained below and how they affect a
business they are the Unitarist, Plurist and interactionist views.

‘The Unitarist frame sees
organisation as essentially harmonious any conflict as bad’ (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2013,
p728). All the members in an organisation should be able to work together as a
team, they should be able to communicate well together and respect everyone’s
views and opinions. If there are some members that don’t agree with this or
behave in a negative manner then they should be removed from the organisation
so they can keep away from people that are trouble; this will help the
organisation focus on those that want to make effort in working for the
business. The Unitarist employees give 100% effort when they’re working in an
organisation, this shows that they want to meet the requirements the
organisation is after. There are many key features of the Unitarist frame that
have been identified as reference they are being able to work together, share
and interact well with one another in the organisation. Being able to avoid
conflicts between individuals, teams and courses within the workplace. The
managers in the workplace have to be able to provide permanent behaviour
changing in all the employees so in a conflict situation through the
application of conflict resolution techniques. They also claim that economic,
technological and political developments in the past that have been applied in
various ways for employees behaviour towards the organisation. It’s very
important for both the employee and the manager to be able to communicate well
with each other and if they fail to do so then they will have to go through
what conflict is in a workplace.

‘The Plurist frame sees
organisations as a collection pf groups, each with their own interests’ (Buchanan and Huczynski,  2013, p728). All the employees in the organisation have
different views, they are working there for money. Their intentions are not
good as they not providing the service the organisation is looking for from a
candidate (They don’t work as has hard as Unitarist).They have different
agendas; they always do everything their way which isn’t good for the
organisation as their objectives will not be met. The Plurist frame comes in
many different ways of conflicts in organisation, there are different types of
groups that share different interests. Conflict doesn’t arise much as all the
individual will have different objectives to meet. The most conflict might
occur when between unions and management which will involve different levels of
management. Plurist frame is referred to as conflict in certain to happen and
can also be avoided when possible. 

‘The Interactionaist frame
sees conflict as a positive, necessary force for effective performance’ (Buchanan and Huczynski,  2013, p728). In this case there are some employees that disagree all
the time, there is more conflict with Interactionalist than any other conflicts
above.  The reason for this is because
some share their views and opinions which some don’t seem to agree on, so this
creates conflicts between employees which it shouldn’t because everyone should
feel right to be able to express themselves in the way they feel comfortable
in. Interactionist frame can also be similar to Plurist frame as they both are
pretty much alike. This frame persuades people to avoid conflict when it
arises. ‘This frame therefore… innovation and thereby counter apathy’ (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2013, p730).
This conflict has to be done in a suitable way Dysfunctional conflict can be
hard to some people to handle in organisations, whereas functional conflict
helps reach all the organisation goals and also help their performance improve.

Conflict management is being
able to manage conflict in an organisation, be able to deal with disagreements
in a sensible way so it helps everyone avoid arguments. Being able to solve all
problems the manager needs to be able to communicate in an effective way;
making sure they negotiate in an appropriate way and respects everyone’s views
and opinions when it arises. If they can achieve this then it will help the
business focus on how they can achieve their objectives of the organisation. ‘Conflict
management should be constructive and take the form of problem solving rather than
contending’ (Dreu and vliert, 1997, p3).      

In conclusion I feel that
conflict can bring negative and also positive to the organisation, the most
important issue is that how does the organisation deal with the situation; how
do they help their employees make them improve on things they think they are
not capable off. If all organisations help their employees achieve their
objectives then this will help the business improve their service. The three
frames that are above shows how they impact in the workplace environment, there
are many ways they can avoid all these issues by working on the things they
feel they are weak at. There are many ways they can do this by setting goals.
For example goals orientation and evaluation is when each department is given a
goal and see how they achieve it. All the goals will be different so they can
see how people in the workplace work their way through to achieve it, they will
have their own priorities examined.  This
will help everyone in the workplace to be able to avoid conflict and work on
the things they feel they are not capable of.



Assignment 4

Organisational change in an
organisation is essential as it helps them understand different types of
theories of change that will appear and improve a good change/improvements in
the future. ‘Organizational
change is both the process in which an organization changes
its structure, strategies, operational methods, technologies, or organizational
culture to affect change within the organization and the effects of these
changes on the organization. Organizational change can be continuous or occur
for distinct periods of time’ (,

Organisation development ‘for
organisations that do manage… new organisation success’ (Mullins
and Christy, 2013, p711). Some organisations needs changes/improvements
in order to help them progress, these changes can different types such as
changes in the society, individuals, groups. These changes brings positive
behaviour in the organisation; for example personal transformational change not
because circumstances have changed but because there has been some emotional or
spiritual change in the individual as either being transformed or change. The
behaviour of this change might affect the individual in the workplace and also
their relationship towards the colleague. This kind of change can be managed by
the manager, if the changes are positive or negative the manager will be able
to improve these changes so the individual is not affected in any way. Whereas
if the manager is not able to improve these changes then this will affect the organisation
operating very well.

There are many external
environment factors that can affect an organisation, therefore this will affect
the organisation structure and how it operates in the business. Some factors
are uncertain economic conditions, political, new development, consumer
requirements, changes in social and cultural values, technology change and
globalisation and fierce world competition. Due to some of these changes the
organisation should be able to respond to each one of them so it doesn’t affect
them in the business. However internal changes in the organisations are
different goals, staff turnover, when people leave, conflict between
operational components such as departments or people and also changes in the
social and cultural environment.

In organisations change can
bring positive outcomes for example communicating well with everyone in the
workplace can help them have good relationship. The benefits of this will help
them achieve the goals and achievement’s they are aiming for. ‘Communicate the
vision and strategy in order to induce understanding and commitment’ (Mullins and Christy, 2013, 718). Working as a team can
help you improve on your communication skills, it can also enhance on skills
you are weak at and improve your leadership.

Three behavioural modification
developments that have been identified by Lewin are Unfreezing ‘reducing those
forces… improvement to occur’. Second development is Movement “development of
new attitudes or behaviour and the implementation of the change. Final
development is Refreezing ‘stabilising change at… structure and norms’ (Mullins and Christy, 2013, p714).

Managerial changes in the
workplace will be affected by the changes in the reciprocal and in the
organisation ‘the working population… thinking to improve productivity’ (Mullins and Christy, 2013, p714). The manager of the
organisation should be ready for these changes to appear, they should use their
creative thinking to be able to overcome them. Factors like globalization of
markets and technology change give strengths to organisations to change; these
changes can become competition for some organisations. Change is natural;
therefore these changes should bring positive outcomes in the organisation.

Organisation culture has a
huge impact on the organisation, it is defined as how all the members in an
organisation develop their relationship over time. It shows how they behave in
the organisation. ‘Organisation culture focuses… particular organisation setting’
(Knights and Willmott, 2007, p344). Some of the
theories that were outlined by organisation culture are the expansions of
highly technical work and the growth of service industries; these developments
shows that staff should require more skills and good knowledge and should also
know how they should behave in a customer pleasing; also they should know the
correct values for customers. Managers in an organisation should be able to
identify culture in their organisation.

The Organisation Development model
has culture for people’s needs and feelings at its care. The diagram below
shows the OD mode.

(The O.D. Model of Change,
Lecture slides, 2015)

The OD mode helps organisations help their employees know how to develop
their vision, it helps them develop their strengths step by step. It makes them
think very creative, it gets them involve in many challenges, starting from the
bottom by creating an action plan helps them know how what they need to do. It
helps organisations and individuals help them achieve what they are capable for