The government for change. The spread of communism itself

ideologies that percolated in the Philippines are known to be the cause of the
rise of Nationalism among the Filipino people. These dogma’s introduce to us
are considered to be the contributing factor that inspirited the people to
clamor the government for change. The spread of communism itself in Asia, and
the lingering effects of wars somehow triggered the adaption and acceptance of
these foreign ideologies. The introduction of these doctrines created change,
through series of attempts that attacks the system which was then viewed as unfair.
Peasants then grasp the ideology for the relief and hope, that maybe; these
could be their chance to enact change and the opportunity to gain access into
the privileges they were deprive to have.

promise of classless society has been coined to Communism, backed up by the
Marxist ideology.1
The doctrines provisions entice the populace that it reaches to the point that
they engage into arm confrontation with the government in order to effect the
change they sought. The desperate move then escalated the problem, because they
founded a group or movement known as “Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas” which
aims to transform the system and eradicate the class distinction.2
 The interference of United States in the
countries affairs, the Japanese occupation and the injustices committed by the
government buttressed their cause for change. The movement wanted to gain
liberty from United States in terms of its intervention politically and

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 Capitalism itself serves as a barrier to its
aims, a counter pat of communist ideology. It is a Profit-based system, which
leaves the workers with few incentives and owners much of gains. The
relationship among the workers and owners is not well established because most
of the time the focus is on its profits. Capitalist is driven by profits,
without realizing that gains won’t be meet if workers is omitted in the
picture, workers are often exploited since they are only paid through their
labors regardless of the type or kind of work, and commonly waged in minimum

occurrences of insurgency among the Filipino’s are commonly attribute or linked
to Marxist ideologies. The expression of nationalism is fueled by these
doctrines wherein peasant choose to raise arms against the government for they
think that the privileges itself is confined only to the people who belong in
the higher strata of social echelon. Accordingly, Marxism defined as “a
theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social
change in Western societies”.3 These entails that the Marxist ideology
gives emphasis to the less fortunate people, or those who belong in the lowest
class or peasants. The society is impaired due to the division people that has
been linked to the lingering effects of custom-based belief which was then carried
out to ages know as Social Stratification4. The distinction itself
is considered as one of the contributing factors to the rise of nationalism,
which is known as class struggle.

The society is comprised mostly by peasants, yet their
voices remained unheard. The miserable plights of peasants eking out a living
to suffice their families’ hungry stomach, and the slow response of governments
to their condition were then misconstrued by them, making them feel neglected
and alienated.  The atrocities that
transpired during the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos even distance the
populace towards the government, paved to the formation of Communist Party of
the Philippines (CCP) on 1968.5 Constant call for changed
was then showed through rallies and social disobedience. Later that year the
New People’s (NPA) army was then founded yielding to the same ideology which
makes them an armed wing of CCP.6 New People’s Army are
composed mostly of peasant because of their accessibility due to the enticement
of its ideology, there are among the least suspected in the community and
lastly the familiarity of the terrains. Most of them, attack sporadically the
government troops, to show the government that they are capable of inflicting
harm to the government. Peasants are often called the powerless people yet they
are the most important sector in the social echelon because without them the
nation will be destabilized due to the lack of manpower. They play vital role
in the society but their efforts are not even recognize and living in extreme
poverty. The lack of support from the government is always been the sentiments
of these people, so we can’t blame them why they opt change sides and go
against the government. These peasant are armed with guns and inhabits in far
flung villages or mountains away from their families; and life they used to
have.  Which clearly connotes that they
are desperate and aggressive enough for change, their intolerance of the system
is showed through a series of attacks. The peasants who used to have a simple
life in rice fields are now known or branded as bandits and terrorist because
of the hostilities they have done towards the government and the populace. There
rendezvous were away from the communities if possible and meetings are often
clandestine to avoid being captured by the government troops.

The doctrines become the source of knowledge that
awakened the latent consciousness of the people. Jose Maria Sison, a well-known
lawyer who initiated the creation of “Kabataang Makabayan” which aims to
integrate the youth in to the spectrum, encourages the young ones to
participate in the affairs of the government.7 Sison advocates the
participation of the youth and wanted them partake in its struggle for
liberation towards the elite ruling in the government and end the despotic
regime of the Marcoses.  As a University
professor it is not hard for him to do so, and the Universities becomes the
bastion of rallies and demonstration. The first quarter storm of the 1970
marked heavily by a series of youth active demonstrations, which often resulted
to atrocities within the two parties.8 The storm was
characterized as a dilemma because of the bloodshed, wherein youth had been
shot while demonstrating in order to achieve the cause.   

The expression of nationalism among peasant is
mainly associated to the land they are tilling if it they own it or they are
just working to it. Accordingly, the landless peasants are often expresses its
nationalism in more hostile way due to the experiences they have and the poor
living condition they are in. While those who worked in a privately owned land
is quite different because they posed a debt of gratitude towards their land
owners for the help they have extended into their workers. The communist leaders
often find the peasants as subject to the proliferation of these ideologies,
taking advantage of their condition and lack of education. What they are trying
to instill into the minds of the peasants is the promise of classless society
wherein everyone enjoys and putting an end to poverty. The promise of improved
lifestyle and affluence, perhaps serve as the moving force to gain such support
from the masses. The expression of nationalism is greatly shown through
hostility because they think it would be the best thing to do in order to
advance the change they are aspiring. The mobilization of peasantry among the
revolution often denotes a characteristic of nationalism although it is exhibited
through other means. It is still considered as a form of nationalism because
the endeavors for liberation from poverty, neo-colonialism of Americas and to
stop the ruling elite’s trend in the government were their primary goal.

Communism threat started when the Russia takes heed
to the ideologies of Karl Marx, revolts started to takes place spearheaded by
Vladimir Lenin, followed by his successors Joseph Stalin wherein the primary
purpose is utilize the lands and distribute it to the peasants and as well as
Even the Japanese occupation posed a certain threat, adaptation of China to its
doctrines and the war in Vietnam are among the few of the factors or reasons
that cause the spread of communist ideology in Asia particularly the
Philippines.  The utilization of manpower
among the insurgent group during the time of Marcos are also considered to be
the cause, yet, we can also take a look from the abuses committed during his
regime which also fueled the masses to take part to the movements. The
classifications of people are among the problem which could also be considered
since; it created a wide gap among the elites and of those who belong in the
lower strata. Disparities are being looked into, through this we could infer in
totality, that the flaws are being recognized without acknowledging the
likeness or similarities.

             The Conrado Balweg’s uprising in Abra; a
province in Northern Philippines has something to do with the present condition
of his kin’s. Balweg is a member of a minority tribe in Abra, in which struggled
to keep up with the constant pressure from the majority group and poverty. He
is a member of a peasant class in which he manages to enroll himself into
seminary and pursued to become a priest.10 He then turn away from
his vow and move to the mountains and joined the communist group in his aims to
stop the injustices and inequity committed by the government towards these
powerless people. The concept that he adheres is that only few are enjoying the
privileges that must have been supposedly be enjoyed by all.  During his days in the convent he actively
participates in the demonstration particularly during the first quarter storm, clamoring
the government for change. He is one of an example of Revolutionary Clergy as
what John N. Schumacher describes. The arm confrontation is one of the major
expressions of his nationalism for he believes “the deprived and the oppressed inevitably demand the purposeful and
resolute exercise of counter-violence if justice is to be
served and practiced.”11 The need of social
justice is what makes him change his mind since oppression is evident among the
society wherein only those who have much can get the justice that must be served
to all.

The mobilization of this communist group the
CPP-NPA’s is due to their principal objective that is change our government
system into Socialism.12
These aspiration is often neglected by many particularly the elites since it
will crippled their businesses, considering the fact that they are privilege
and the much of the gains circulate within these privilege few. The communist
group wanted to do away with this system and free the people from the cursed and
shackles of poverty. They see socialism as the only solution of the lingering
problem posed by so many adherences to western thoughts such as capitalism and its
progenitor. They see the presence of United States as a threat to our
sovereignty because of its economic policies which only exhorts us and left us
with residue of its profits or gains. Accordingly, “Nationalism demands both economic and political independence.
It resists and condemns foreign intervention in our internal affairs as well as
in the conduct of our foreign policy. The US bases are an unwarranted
derogation of our sovereignty and should be dismantles.”13 The presence of US bases would definitely mean we
are subject to annihilation. The United States interference in our internal affairs
jeopardizes our sovereignty, and the communist group wanted to oust this person
who causes it so to our lands. The economy itself is being monopolized by foreign
corporations and our own businesses lack support from our government. The policies
are mostly in favor to foreign investors to attract more them in our country. The
export based system could also means

The expression of nationalism of the peasant is
affected by the doctrines introduced to them.14 They are enticed of its
provisions and promises that it is the solution to the problem they are
experiences. It will put end poverty and can alleviate their living. More than
that the expression itself is considered to be harsh by some because they
resort into arm confrontation rather than peaceful means, but makes it nationalist
is that they aspiration for change and to free our land from the shackles of foreigners,
to liberate us from the foreign intervention. Nationalism is showed in many
ways and as to its expression it depends upon onto the person as to how he will
show it. We all have the right to decide what will be the outcome of our future
and it also depends on our hands what will be the course of tomorrow. As a
nationalist one must have a prior knowledge of its history in order to
understand the true essence of nationalism. But it doesn’t necessarily mean
that we have to look back and understand everything, in order to consider our
actions as nationalism. In simplest sense, nationalism is aspiring for change
with that benefits the nation, such safeguarding one’s sovereignty from
external forces, buying one’s product and paying homage to symbol of
independence, our national anthem and flag and etcetera. Nationalism is
expressed in many ways or means but still yields to the same meaning and it is
the welfare of one’s nation. Ergo, dogma’s and doctrine’s precept influence the
expression of nationalism among the peasants.




Karl Marx and The Rise of Communism.…/Karl%20Marx%20Communism101.pdf,retrievedonDecember07,2017

2 Alfredo
B. Saulo, Communism in the Philippines: An Introduction (Quezon City: Ateneo de
Manila University Press, 2002), 228


4  Harold R. Kerbo, 2002, Social Stratification
and Inequality: New York : McGraw-Hill Education

5 Jose
Maria Sison. (1989). The Philippine Revolution: The Leaders View. New York:
Taylor & Francis, pp. 41-46.

Patricio N. Abinales, Filipino Communism and the Specter of Communist

7 Francis
Domingo, 2013, Explaining the Sustainability of the Communist Party of the
Philippines-New People’s Army, Small Wars Journal.

8 Gregg
R. Jones, Red Revolution: Inside the Philippine Guerrilla Movement (Boulder,
Colorado: West view Press, 1989), pp. 5-6.

9,retrievedonDecember08, 2017.


Bert M. Drona, 2006, God and Revolution-Fr. Condrado Balweg, SVD.

12 Peter
Chalk, Angel Rabasa and others The Evolving Terrorist threat in Southeast Asia:
A Net Assessment.(Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation, 2009), p. 57.