The economic cooperation and (North, 1990. Scott,. 1995) Economic

The Betton themes that emerge from these research
streams are that an adequate financial arrangement vital.


Economic reform/privatization in road sense can be
defined as the renewal of the economic arrangement that regulate economic cooperation
and (North, 1990. Scott,. 1995)

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Economic reforms have in genie take in three forms
depending on the privacy of the country.

Movement from high state interference to low state
interference in the economy, which possessed capitalist countries such as the
UK and Spain undergone in the 1980s and 1990s (Baily, 1986, Peltzman, 1989,
Winston, 1993, 1998).

Transformation of socialist based or command-based
economic arrangement towards capitalist based or display based ones as the case
of former Soviet Block (Asunder, Boonem and Johnson, 1996; Blanchard, 1997;
Brada, 1996, Peng, 2000; Sachs, 1996; Svenjar, 2002).

Reinstate rant of import-substitution policies with
more open display models of economic models of economic process, as took place
in much of Latin America and South Asia during 1990s. (Bruton, 1998; Dornbusch,
1992; Dewards 1993; Rein hard and Peres, 2000; Sachs and Warner, 1995).

In these all three categories of redeem the basic
objective is to reduce the government interference the economy. Three forms of
redeem were taken for reduction in tendency of government interference in
economy were:

Privatization (Vickers & 1988; Zahra
et al., 2000)

Deregulation (Winston, 1993, 1998)

Liberalization (Cooper, 1982; Norman &
Thisee, 1996)


The financial sector
plays a crucial role in the economic development of developed as well as
devoting economies. All sort of businesses need the help of financial
institutions andthese institutions are competing with each other for attracting
the customers. In the emerging and developing countries the strengthening of
financial system is one of the main issues. Well-developed mobilizing the
financial saving. Put theses saving into productive activities though sharing
different risks. In many counties the financial liberalization, entry
deregulation, minimum requirement of reserve, and removal of credit allocation
procedures are introduced. Domestic banks can easily access to cheap loan
sources of aboard, there resources in turn are used for the economy productive
sector (Shirai, 2001). The basic functions of the bank are to provide the
resources and credit facility to the most productive and efficient sectors to
accelerate the growth. Banking system also focuses on the performance,
governance of businesses and supports the payment system. The governments also
focus on the close supervision  of banks
through regulations to ensure the efficient performance of financial sector;
the public banks also exist along privatized banks (Barth, et al., 2000).

The role of public sector
banks and other financial institutions in economic development has been
examined in many studies. There are two brad views about government involvement
in financial systems around the world, i.e., the ‘development; view and the
‘political’ view. The development view as advocated by Gerashchenko (1962)
states that governments can intervene through their financial institutions to
direct savings of the people towards developmental sectors in countries where
financial institutions are not adequately developed to channel resources into
productive sectors. Gerschenkron’s view was part of a braoder consensus in
development economics that favoured government ownerhip of enterprise in
strategic economic sectors. Realizing this importance of financial sector in
economic development, governments in developing countries sought to increase
their ownership of banks and other fanancical institutions in the 1960s and
1970s, in order to direct credit towards priority sectors

Contrary to this view, in
recent year a new ‘political’ view of government ownership has evolved which
asserts that state control of finance through banks and other institutions
politicizes allocation for the sake of getting votes or bribes for office
holders and thereby  results in lower economic
efficiency Barth et al. (2001) using cross country data on comercia bank
regulation and ownership from over 60 countries find that state ownership of
banks is negatively associated with bank performance and overall financial
sector development and does not reduce the likelihood of financial crises.

It is vital to help the
efficiency of the firm operating within an economy. There can be several
difference ways in achieving this objective but one of the popular ways in
achieving this objective is privatization. Privatization is done to correctly
allocated resources and savings of firms and is also generally thought to
increase overall performance of state owned or may be public field firms.
Privatization identify not noted simply by Gable (1987) the phrase
privatization has two meanings the initial: is any financial transaction- the
sale of any publicly owned asset towards private field. The second will be the
transfer with the authority to generate resource allowance decision from your
government towards market location. Moyo & Kinuthia-Njenga (1998) outline
privatization because the entire strategy of expanding the particular sphere
with the market through a host regarding regulations that create an permitting
environment for free enterprise to control as something for ecological economic
progress. Prior report support that if there is change throughout ownership
subsequently it can lead to greater efficiency and as a result of change
throughout ownership share prices of the competitors fell when comared to
British Air passages (Ecket, Eckel along with Singal, 1997). The very few
research study have been reported on this study around the globe and two to
three studies have been conducted in Pakistan with this regard but the
methodology and sample size as well as the target banks are different from that
banks on which research study were already carried out. This mentioned
discussion show a clear gap for the researcher to carry out research on those
banks which are not previously included in research.               

Impact on efficiency

Mukherjee, et al.
(2001) has examine the relationship between firm performance and strategic
group for 68 Indian banks. They have used the financial variables like deposits
net profits, advances, interest income and non interest income spread as out
put  banks. Inputs include net worth,
operating expences, number of employees, barrowing of the bank and number of
bank branches. (jemric and Vujcic, 2002) have used the DEA approach to reckon
the efficiency of 48 Croatian commercial banks.