the credibility. Consequently, if managers want to be proactive

the MBA, examine differences between males and females and build on
existing quantitative research about the results and benefits of MBA programs.

The study had demonstrated the value of MBA programs to individuals
in a limit less career environment, in that they can help them to acquire
career competencies which will facilitate their future career development. Not
only can an MBA contribute to increased wage, grade and promotion, it can also improve
career opportunities in a wider sense through granting individuals greater
career clarity, improved confidence and advanced perceived credibility. Consequently,
if managers want to be proactive about promoting their own careers, an MBA may
provide the best opportunity to build career capital quickly and effectively.
It is important to know that the learning which builds this career path seems
to be the result of informal as much as formal experiences on the program.

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It also demonstrated the growth of ratio of employers who recruit
MBA graduate students or sponsorship grants students on MBA programs, because
the students gained a wider range of skills such as increased confidence,
better people management and greater adaptation with change are likely to
benefit business as much as technical skills, such as finance and marketing
expertise. Likewise, the MBA appears to offer employers an effective means of
levelling the playing field for females’ manager, in relationships of
confidence, credibility and assertiveness. It concluded the improvement of
knowing (why career competencies connected to career values meanings and
motivations) were the most important output of the program for the graduates.
Knowledge career competencies (relative to skills and job – relative knowledge)
were also appreciated greatly. Increased self-confidence was a valuable form of
career human capital for the graduate students, while the qualifications and
consequences of this look to be somewhat different for males and females.

(2004) Arnaldo
Camuffo and Fabrizio Gerli afford an Italian MBA case study in the integrated
competency – based approach to management schooling.

The research describe the characteristics of a competency – based learning
process and the reason why it can expand educational effectiveness and
efficiency. Its content therefore dual:

It offer
an integrated framework for the effective design and implementation of
competency – based management learning programs.

applied the suggested framework to the Italian MBA program, developing the case
study for competency – based management learning programs.

The research framework based on the delivery of competency – based learning
into three major concepts and phases:

 learning objectives and training requirements
using competency – based surveys and competency modelling

 Designing competency-based  pedagogy 
and  coaching  methods

 Observing knowledge (at the individual and at
the class) through the learning program using means of competency – based
methodologies and many tools.

Each of these phases, and the significant competency – based tools.

The measurement of the outputs of MBA learning program in terms of
competency development is essential to check what MBA graduate students have
learned and guaranteed they are equipped to become outstanding leaders. Efficient
information about learning and development is serious in helping students to focus
their efforts on the applicable competencies, as well as possible in improving
and developing the MBA program. The new competency-based (Centro Universitario
Organizzazione Aziendale Italy) CUOA? MBA used an
articulated approach for evaluating educational outputs, which concentrated on
the evaluation of the competencies possessed by the students earlier, through
and at the finale of the MBA. The grade of possession of the competencies was valued
at diverse periods during the one-year program, using a variety of integrated

 The assessment system applied to the CUOA MBA graduate students program
contained of three different procedures and methodologies

1) Self – assessment ?

2) Third – party ? assessment ?

3) Peer ?
assessment ?

The hypothetical framework and the
research case study suggested that the integrated use of competency – based
methodologies through completely different phases of learning process can growth
the effectiveness of the learning management as a consequence of the value it
produces, from a various constituency perspective.

Competency modelling on graduate
students, managers and experts of recruiting companies on anticipated skills
can represent complete methodologies for identifying learning objectives of a compound
learning ?management program like an (MBA) Master
business Administration. Competency – based methodologies can similarly performance
a main role in the design of the MBA curriculum and in the selection of the learning
methods, providing that the competencies creating the learning objectives are
classified and practice in detail, and each lecture professor is assigned the vision
to develop some of them within his management course.

From this perspective, restructuring
a curriculum following a competency – based method suggests a major design
effort and strong commitment of the university. Competency – based assessment
(self – assessment, peer assessment and third – party assessment) permits us to
draw an complete map of what kind of knowledge and improvement is taking place
in the class as a result of the learning program, providing standard and timely
feedback to the students, companies and lecture professors .

The major advantage of the suggested
framework resided in the fact that it integrates the learning method across all
its diverse phases, through a completed and expressed ?use
of competency-based analysis, providing a ?public
language and harmonious measures.?

Lastly, the research showed that
there are opportunities for international research on competency – based
graduate students management learning, since of the need to research and adapt
the methodologies to the diverse environments, educational states and
individual career paths and to keep a close relation between the different phases
of the educational process.

The suggested integration among
competencies, learning methods and assessment tools is particularly effective
and efficient in a collective learning environment, where it is necessary to develop
the same group of competencies in a comprehensive group of individuals. In an additional
personalized situation the approach should be adjusted but could be based on
the same standards.

(2006) Dr.Scott G.
Dacko, Warwick Business School, titled as Developing the Top Five Skills within
an MBA Program, Insinuations for Management Educators, The research examined
and discussed MBA graduate students and employers ,Opinions of desired and existent
skill improvement for five wide business skills acknowledged as significant in
the extant research, ? leadership, decision-making,
analytical, , communication and interpersonal skills.

By judgmentally appraising the state of skill improvement at one of
the business school in particular, Warwick Business School,

The research assess and discuss main challenges and effects for
skill development facing the following four study questions were discussed in
the research.