The Church at the time because they still believed

The Early Contributors to Gravitational Theories     Contrary to many beliefs Isaac Newton was not the pioneer of theories pertaining to gravity and motion. Astronomers such as Aristotle and Galileo began what we know today as the study of Planetary Motion. Several people do not know that Aristotle actually considered the theory that the Earth revolved around the sun. However, he thought that there should be a change in the placement of the stars if that was so, therefore, he rejected the idea. Aristotle is known for his theory that the earth was the center of our solar system, which explained why from Earth everything appeared to orbit it.     Later, a man by the name of Galileo Galilei disproved Aristotle’s theory. Galileo is known for using the first telescope to observe moons orbiting other planets such as Jupiter and Venus. This was not accepted by the Church at the time because they still believed the theory of Aristotle that everything revolved around the earth. Despite being warned by the Church Galileo wrote Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. In those days, defying the Church was seen as a punishable crime, consequently, Galileo spent the remainder of his life under modern-day house arrest.     Alas, along came a man by the name of Johannes Kepler. Kepler contributed in arguably the most revolutionary way possible. Not only did he prove Galileo’s theory farther than any other astronomer could, but he also added to it by theorizing that every planet and satellite orbits the sun in an elliptical pattern (oval shape). This was later discovered to occur because of the gravitational pull of the sun (Riebeek, 2009).     This brings us to the one and only Isaac Newton. He was born January 4, 1643. He is known for his praised discoveries in physics and math. Newton is also well known for his white light theory. Possibly one of his best-known contributions to the world of science is his Three Laws of Inertia (Biography, 2017). These three laws lead him to what we know today as the Theory of Gravity. This theory helped to solidify the theory of Kepler’s that the planets did indeed orbit the sun in an elliptical motion. It also contributed to explaining nearly every other motion in the universe including meteors and asteroids (McNelly, 2000). The theory also contributed to Newton finding a way to calculate the mass of each planet. Later on, Newton was able to introduce the Universal Law of Gravitation. In due time it would be made complete by Henry Cavendish.     Henry Cavendish was a contributor to Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation by performing an experiment that proved that G was the same value in every sense of the equation. This experiment included a two-foot long rod, two lead spheres, and thin wire. From gathering all of the supplies he made what is called a torsion balance. His experiment gave us the number for the gravitational pull of Earth, 6.675×10-11 Nm2 /kg2, which eventually changed to 6.67259×10-11Nm2/kg2 (Physics Classroom, 2018).General Relativity     On the flip side to gravitational theories, there is Einstein’s approach to General Relativity. In order to discuss the Theory of Relativity was must acknowledge the equivalence of inertial and gravitational properties of mass and their role in the development of General Relativity. By manipulating one part of the equation we must change another part of the equation. For example, by doubling m2 we must also the force acting upon m1 (Annenberg, 2018). We must also the correspondence of gravity and the bending of space-time fabric. Very simply put the size of the warp in the fabric depends solely on the force of the pull of gravity; the small the pull of gravity, the small the warp in the fabric will be and vice versa.     Probably one of the most exciting studies in physics is the Black Hole science and the possibility that they are real. To understand the physics of black holes one must understand the Schwarzschild radius. According to COSMOS Schwarzschild radius is “the radius of the event horizon surrounding the non-rotating black hole” (COSMOS, 2007). A black hole is defined by NASA as “a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can not get out” (NASA, 2017). Black holes do indeed exist despite the common world believing that the idea is merely a myth.     After mentioning light it is only right to mention the relation between gravity and the bending of light.  The bending of light, also known as the Quantum Bending of Light, can be measured when it is large portions of light. According to APS Physics, “Light traveling close to an object gets deflected from its path because of the pull of gravity” (APS Physics, 2015). This relates to gravitational lensing which is described by Berkeley University as, “distribution of matter between a distant light source and an observer” (Berkeley, 2010).     The mention of the black hole earlier has prompted a mention of a wormhole. This is described by NASA as a “hypothetical passage that a spacecraft could jump time” (NASA, 2008). Unfortunately, wormholes do not exist, however, the universe is a vast system that cannot be explored in one human lifetime, so fingers crossed there is still hope.     Moreover, the General Theory of Relativity is known as a theory because it has not yet been proven by a hard fact. Until then, astronomers have continuously worked to prove Einstein’s theory of relativity. Who knows, maybe wormholes do exist. Maybe I should find out, jump time, and figure out my grade of this paper.