The android operatingsystem is fundamentally an operating system intended for mobilesand is quickly acquiring market, with loads of smart phones and tablets. It ismobile operating system that practices a revised version of the Linux kernel2.6. Google has developed Android as part of the Open Handset Agreement.
Android has the leading market share amongst all Smartphone operating system. Android is a modern mobile platform that is designed to be truly opensource. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices,based on the Linux kernel, and developed by Google and later the Open HandsetAlliance. Open source platform requires robust security architecture to providesecurity. Android is designed with multi layered security.
September20th 2008 was the date when Google released the first Android OS by the name of”Astro”. After some time next upgraded versions “Bender” and “Cupcake” werealso released. Google then implemented the style of naming android versionsafter any dessert or a sweet in alphabetical order. The other releases areDonut, Éclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich and JellyBean, Kitkat, Lolipop, Marshemellow, Nougat. Nougat is so far the latestandroid version from google.
Since the platform is not closed like IOS, thereare countless android apps built by developers. Just after treading into the smart phone andtablets market Android gained gigantic fame due to its attractive appearanceand resourceful working. Various innovative features were presented whichplayed a substantial role in Android’s achievement. Google Play is an officialapp market which holds millions of different apps for android devices. Severaltop manufacturers are using Android in their devices. Android softwaredevelopment and the Google Play Market are open and unobstructed.
So bothdevelopers and users have more flexibility and independence, but also generatesmajor security challenges. Currently Android is one of the top operatingsystems and is considered a serious threat for iPhone.Android is apprising day by day since itsrelease.
The updates essentially focusing on fixing bugs and adding newtopographies to deliver friendlier environment. Usually each new version of theAndroid operating system is established under a code name based on a dessertitem. The most recent released versions of Android are:2.0/2.
1 (Eclair), which refurbished the user interface and presentedHTML5 and Exchange ActiveSync 2.5 support. 2.2 (Froyo), which presented speed improvements with JIT implementation,and added Wi-Fi hotspot tethering and Adobe Flash support.
2.3 (Gingerbread), which polished the user interface, improved the softkeyboard and copy/paste features, and further support for Near FieldCommunication.3.
0(Honeycomb), which supports larger screen devices and announces many new userinterface features like private browsing and HTTP live streaming, and supportsmulticore processors and hardware acceleration for graphics. Some new featuresadded to the Smartphone’s Such as photo enhancements, network data, offline emailsearching, usage monitoring and facial recognition unlock. 4.0 (IceCream Sandwich) introduced New lockscreen actions, Improved text input and spell-checking, Control over networkdata, Email app supports EAS v14, WI-FI direct, Bluetooth Health DeviceProfile.4.1,4.
2,4.3(JellyBean) has introduced Google Now, Voice Search, Speed enhancements, GestureTyping, for faster typing, 4K resolution support, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)support, Security and performance enhancements. 4.4(KitKat) presented Screen recording, New Translucent system UI, Enhancednotification access, System-wide settings for closed captioning.
KitKat debutedon Google’s Nexus 5, and was enhanced to run on a larger range of devices thanearlier versions.5.0/5.1.1(Lollipop) introduced with Speed improvement, Batteryconsumption improvement, Multiple SIM cards support, Stability and performanceenhancements.
6.0 (Marshmallow) presented USB Type-C support, FingerprintAuthentication support, Better battery life with “deep sleep”, MIDIsupport, Google Now improvements.Beautiful UI: AndroidOS basic screen provides a beautiful and spontaneous user interface.Storage:SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes.
Connectivity: Android supports connectivity technologies includingGSM EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EVDO, UMTS, Bluetooth, WI-Fi, LTE, NFC and WI MAX.Messaging:SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messagingand Android Cloud to Device Messaging and now enhanced version of C2DM, AndroidGoogle Cloud Messaging is also a part of Android Push Messaging service. Media Support: It supports H.263, H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC,HE-AAC, AAC 5.1, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP. Multiple language support: Android supports multiple languages.Multi-Tasking: User canjump from one task to another and same time various application can runsimultaneously.
The feature was originally disabled at thekernel level. After the update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droidmulti-touch enables natively.Bluetooth: SupportsA2DP, AVRCP, sending files, accessing the phone book, voice dialling andsending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick support isavailable in Android 3.
1+. Tethering:Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as wireless/wiredWi-Fi hotspot. Screen capture: Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressingthe power and volume-down buttons at the same time. Resizable widgets: Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content orshrink them to save space.
Wi-Fi Direct: A technology thatalllow apps determine and pair straight, over a high-bandwidth peer-to-peerconnection. Android Beam: A popularNFC-based technology that lets users instantly share, just by touching twoNFC-enabled phones together.Applicationswhich enrich the functionality of devices, are developed in Java Language usingthe Android software development kit. Once developed, Android applications canbe bundled simply and sold out either through Google Play. Google Play Store is the primary applicationstore installed on Android devices that comply with Google’s compatibilityrequirements and license the Google Mobile Services software. Android commandsnearly all mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. It isthe leading installed OS of any mobile platform and growing fast. Average 1million new Android devices are activated worldwide.
Android has adeveloping range of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users bydownloading and installing the application’s APK file, or by downloading usingGoogle Play Store. Google Play Store permits users to browse, download, updateand remove applications published by Google and third-party developers.The open nature of Android and its largeuser base have made it an attractive and gainful platform to attack. Commonexploits and tool kits on the OS can be utilized across a wide number ofdevices. Attackers can perform exploits and reuse attack vectors.
Googleanalysed measures in the development of the Android kernel to build security methods. The OS is sandboxed,preventing malicious processes from crossing between applications. At the sametime as this attempt to exclude the perception of infection is commendable insome regards, it flops to solve the problem of infection totally. Android is atarget of its own victory.
One of the reasons the OS succeeded in acquiringmarket segment so quickly is that it is open source. Thewidespread backing from large companies, especially Google, have made Androidone of the most important competitors in the mobile sector. I have learnedthrough my research that Android is a much more diverse operating system thaniOS and Windows Phone Mobile. Android has grown swiftly over the past 4 yearsbecoming the maximum used smartphone operating system in the world. It’sbecause Android doesn’t release 1 phone from 1 company with 1 new OS everyyear, but incalculable phones from several companies, having their own twist,during the year.
Android’s ability to customize is incomparable to any other MobileOperating System