Term paper for 2023603 Sustainable Resource Management Water Resource Management1. Introduction Water is a vital resource for all livingthings on the planet. About 75 percent of the earth surface is covered withwater. But then, only round about three percent of total water volumes is the freshwaterresource.
Two-third of the freshwater resource are padlocked in glaciers andice caps. Therefore, the accessible freshwater resource is few percent of the totalfreshwater resource. Water resource isbecoming scared gradually nowadays. In amid countries, having access to safe,clean, fresh drinking water is limited.
Freshwater demand is increasing in everfor agriculture, drinking, sanitation, leisure and manufactures. Presently, most countries in manyparts of the world are confronting the pressures on water resources. World populationis increasing agilely and it is estimated that the population may reach to ninebillion by 2050. This population will need about 60 percent increasing agriculturalproduction. Such kinds of increasing demand on water resource make a scarcityin many parts of the world. It is estimated that 40 percent of the globalpopulation lives in water scare area approximately 25 percent of the global GDPis exposed to this kind of challenges. By 2025, twenty-three percent of theglobal population will be living in the place where absolute water scarcity occurred.Additionally, as some of the biggest threats to global prosperity and thestability, extreme weather events, hydrological uncertainty and chronic waterscarcity were perceived.
Many countries occur water security and challengesthat are concerned in water resources. Freshwater is the crucial resourcenot only for human welfare but also for economic activities. Inefficient accessto advanced water supply may result in the human health and hazards and loss oftime in production processes. Accordingly, the freshwater resource for bothagricultural production and domestic use play in the crucial role to beconserved in integrated ways.The remainingparts of this paper are divided into four main sections. The section (2) discusses on water resource,its crisis and problems, the section (3) considers the Integrated Water ResourceManagement and case study in Myanmar’s IWRM, thesection (4) makes a discussion on waterresource management and the section (5) concludes the paper. 2.
Water Resource, its crisis andProblemsWater resourceis the most important one to the human being for ages. Demand for the freshwaterresource has increased sharply with steady growth in world population, bringingabout rising consumption, rapid development, climate change and widespreadwater pollutions from domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. The priceof fresh water is also steadily increased by rising demand and the shortage offreshwater over the years.
It has been indicated by statisticsfrom the United Nations (UN) thatabout two billion people will be living inregions with absolute water scarcity, and round about 70 percent of the world’spopulation could be living under water-stress conditions by the year 2025. Hence, it is becoming more crucial than ever that theefficient water management with good practices. The overuse of water, watermismanagement, changes in availability and pollution are the factors of the presentwater crisis.2.1. The main causes of thewater crisisAccording to Tundist et al.
(2008), rapid urbanization in many parts ofthe world, increasing water usage and widespread of wastewater discharged, causeswater crisis. Alteration in the availability of water also makes water scarcityand water stress. Further, unsuitable infrastructures in water networks in manyurban areas also cause the water sanitation problems.
Global changes in extremehydrological events, increasing human populations are the problems of the stressand scarcity of water resources. Additionally, lack of consistent actions ofwater resources and lack of articulation is also the factors of the watercrisis.This set ofproblems has continental, regional, local and planetary dimensions. Theseproblems contribute to an exacerbation and increase of sources of contaminationand to be decreased availability. Further, the problems contribute alterationof the water resources with scarcity. These also contribute the increasing thevulnerability of people population because of the difficulty of access to goodquality water. Besides, these problems also afford to water contamination, and thequality and quantity of water, and to respond to these causes public health andinterfere in human, with a deterioration of economic and social development andof quality of life. 2.
2 Measures to solve the problemsTo solve theseproblems and to make enhance strategies for long-term management, the watershedsurvey, integrating research, management and monitoring should be approached. Animproved water governance system based on the participation of changesstakeholders and the public and private sector should also be considered andimplemented. Strategic studies on water and energy, water and metropolitan areaand water and economy have to be enhanced.
A framework for international cooperationhared watersheds is the crucial approach to solve the water crisis andproblems. Furthermore, an economic evaluation of water resources services mustbe taken account to make backing in solving water-related problems. Educationof all levels of the community is another necessary development for waterresources management. 3. IntegratedWater Resource Management (IWRM)3.1.
Definition and history of IWRMTheTechnical Committee of the Global Water Partnership (GWP) has defined the IWRM as “aprocess which promotes the coordinated development and management of water,land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic andsocial welfare in an equitable manner without compromisingthe sustainability of vital ecosystems.”The IWRMframework designed base on four keys principles of Dublin Conference on Waterwhich was held in 1992 and Rio de Janeiro Summit on Sustainable Development.This framework aimed to improve the water resources management. The four keys principle of Dublin Conferenceon Water are that (1)fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource essential to sustain life, development,and the environment,(2)water development and management should be based on a participatory approach,involving users, planners, and policymakers at all levels, (3) women play a central part inthe provision, management, and safeguarding of water, and (4) water should be recognized as an economicgood because it hasso many economic values.IWRM come out ofthree principles that are economic efficiency, social equity, andenvironmental sustainability.Economic efficiency means bringing the enormous benefitto the greatest number of users probable with available water resources.
Theeconomic value should be taken account for not only about price but also forcurrent and future social, and environmental costs and benefits. Social equity meansassuranceequal access for all waterusersto an adequate quantity and quality of water necessary to sustain human well-being. Ecological sustainabilityrequires that aquatic ecosystems are acknowledgedas users and that adequate allocation is made to sustain their naturalfunctioning. Limitingor avoiding land uses and developments that negatively impact aquatic ecosystemneed to be achieved this creation.IWRMapproaches involveapplying knowledge from various disciplines as well as the insights fromdiverse stakeholders to devise and implement efficient, equitable andsustainable solutions to water and development problems. The approach is an accessible, adjustable process, taking together decision-makers cross-wisethe differentsectors that affect waterresources and bringing all stakeholders to the table to firm policy up in response to specific waterchallenges faced.
3.2 Implementation of IWRMIWRMdesiresto shapesustainable water security within the present restraint and to improve the situations inthe catchment basin. Someimportant conditions for implementing IWRM are political will and commitment that will support andease public pressure for IWRM implementation. A clear vision for river basin managementand participation and coordination mechanism are also the important conditionsfor implementing.
Moreover, well-defined flexible and enforcement legal frameworksand regulations, water allocation plan, adequate investment, financialstability and sustainable cost recovery, good knowledge of natural resourcespresent in the basin, and comprehensive monitoring and evaluation are alsoimportant conditions for implementation of IWRM. 3.3. Casestudy: Integrated Water Resources Management in Myanmar In Myanmar, the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)is being implemented by the National Water Resource Committee (NWRC) which isan apex body of the transforms. Myanmar, one of the ASEAN member countries, is aforest-clad mountainous country, with plains, valleys and plateaus.
Myanmar has1082km³ of potentialwater volume for surface water and 495 km³ for groundwater as well constitute national waterresources annually. Thetotalstorage capacity of damsis21283 million cubic meter. Water utilization for agriculturalsector stands for 89percent and the highest proportion of water usage becauseMyanmar is an agro-based country and its domestic use is about 10 percent and industry use is only1 percent ofthe total water use. Thetotal utilization of the nation’s water resources is only about 5 percent of thepotential. The resultsshow that Myanmar water resource is substantial for current use in all sectors.On the other hand, Myanmar is occurring water-related issues such as floods and water scarcity in the central dry zones even though Myanmar has therich water resource. There have various climatic conditions inMyanmar and rainfall isunevenly distributed over the seasons and over the country.
Additionally, alongwith population increase and urbanization, the water demand in cities hasincreased. Fresh water demand in rural areas has also increased due to thedevelopment of irrigated agriculture and other rural-based economic activities.Extraction of groundwater and use of surface water is becoming pressure onwater resources. That is why management and control of groundwater and surfacewater are important for the sustainable development of the country. Rainwaterharvesting strategic planning for water resource development and relatedinfrastructure enhancement are also need to be considered.
Therefore, National Water Resources Committee (NWRC) was established on 25 July 2013 fortheintellectual and technical support in IWRM implementation process. The Netherlands government supported the IWRM Strategic Studyin Myanmar. In Myanmar Integrated Water Resource Management,there have six key management issues and the followings are these six key Management issues. 3.3.1. Water Supply ManagementWater supplyManagement in Myanmar is the responsibility of respective local governments.
Therefore, one of the activities of City Development Committee (Naypyidaw,Yangon, Mandalay) and Department of Rural development is to support theadequate water supply to their respective area. Most cities and towns inMyanmar can provide the water supply for domestic use but water quality is notup to drinking water quality standard. The Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC) has collaborated with JapanInternational Cooperation Agency (JICA) for the development of Yangon downtownmaster plan 2040. 3.3.2. Irrigations ManagementIrrigationdevelopment in Myanmar is the responsibilities of Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation(MOAI).
The irrigation water management activities include the constructions ofthe irrigation dams and the allocations of water for agriculture. The water isdistributed from the dams via gravity and through pumping stations. Seasonalwater quality tests are carried out at the dams. 3.3.3.
Stormwater ManagementStormwatermanagement is the responsibility of the City Development Committees (Yangon, Naypyidawand Mandalay) and the Department of Rural Development (DRD). JICA has assistedin the implementation of urban planning projects for Mandalay and Yangon cities.3.3.4. Floods ManagementFloodsmanagement in Myanmar is the responsibilities of Irrigation Department (ID) thatis under MOAI, Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH), Directorate ofWater Resources and Improvement of River systems (DWIR), General AdministrationDepartment (GAD) and Relief and ResettlementDepartment (RRD) that is under Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement(MoSWRR). Non-structural flood management measures are implemented by DMH andstructural measures by the DWIR and ID.
The DMH collects the meteorological andhydrological data, and forecast the flood model. The construction of reservoirs,levees, and dredging of the creeks by the ID and the early step warning systemare available at the DMH. The RRD is responsible for the flood relief and resettlementmatters. 3.
3.5. Water Pollution ManagementWater pollutionmanagement in Myanmar is the responsibilities of the Environmental ConservationDevelopment (ECD) that is under the Ministry of Natural Resources andEnvironmental Conservation (MONREC), DWIR, Department of Mining (DOM), YCDC, Departmentof Health (MOH).
Most of the water pollution comes from improper mining, drainagefrom industries, and poor drainage systems in the cities. Water conservationregulations and Environmental Conservation Law are the tools to controlled waterpolluting activities. The National Water Policy has been established by theNWRC and National water law is under development. 3.
3.6. Water Sanitation ManagementWater SanitationManagement in Myanmar is the responsibility of the local authorities. Currently,about 9% of the Yangon’s population and 9% of the Mandalay’s population areprovided with modern sanitation facilities. JICA has helped to developmentYangon Master Plan in which there are the proposal to improve the sanitation systemin Yangon. The public is educated on the need to practice good water sanitationvia broadcasting news in MRTV, MWD, MRTV- 4, etc.
3.3.7. Economicefficiency, Equity and Environmental sustainability of Myanmar’s IWRM Economic efficiency: By adopting the IWRM in Myanmar, water use efficiency has been improvedin many cities. It is lead-in the economic efficiency for all nationalisms andit could reduce the increasing scarcity of water, and water shortage in the country.
Equity: Likewise the global people who have the rightto access the adequate water supply, all Myanmar people have also the right toaccess the adequate water supply and good sanitation. Myanmar IWRM hasimplemented to cater for that.Environmental sustainability:To get the environmental andecological sustainability, Integrated Water Resource Management leading toconserve water resources by adopting the efficient ways in using waterresources for all purposesthereby compromising use by future generations of the same resource.Each management sector hasbegun to enhance the implementations in IWRM. Due to a move towards IWRM andits subsequent improvements, irrigationefficiency has risen gradually in many parts of Myanmar. Stormwater management,especially in Yangon, Naypyidaw, Mandalay and Taunggyi cities, become betterconditions than before IWRM.
Water pollution management and sanitationprocesses have also been improved by implementing the Environmental Conservation Law and theEnvironmental Impact Assessment Procedures. On the other hand, there have somechallenges in most of the management sectors. More research is still needed tosolve the problems in each sector. In Myanmar’s IWRM, there also have somebarriers such as lack of traditions for inter-minister cooperation, budgetlimitation, limited capacity and technology.
After making the completion tothis challenges, we hope that the Myanmar’ IWRM will get success in the conservationof water resources in sustainable ways. 4.DiscussionWorld populationgrowth makes more water demand and it also makes more water pollutions.
Freshwaterscarcity problem is caused in part by the increasing demandsof growing human populationrapidly, by the uneven spatial distributionof rainfall whichis being exacerbated by climate change and by a long history of poormanagement practices. Wecannot solve easily some problems which caused by climatic conditions and bynatural events. But, we can make change the management practices to getsustainable water management. The use of economic and policyinstruments have tobe considered in integratedforms so that water security to be managed effectively. In the agriculture sector which is the most waterdemand sector, there is need to improve water use efficiency for sustainableagriculture. By adopting the proper irrigation management and good governancepractices, water use efficiency in agriculture can be improved and it maysupport for sustainable agriculture. To solve andreduce the problems that relate to water resources, Integrated Water ResourceManagement is the best approach. Some case study of IWRM in the world adduces that the approach ofIWRM can be successful in a sustainable way while some fail in implementingbecause of some complexities of the framework.
We need to approach sustainablewater management via the success of Integrated Water Management although theremay have some barriers to implementation IWRM. 5. ConclusionWater is thefundamental requirement for all living things including human life andwell-being. Now a day, people in manyparts of the world are confronting the scarcity and shortage of water becauseof population growth and water pollution events. Accordingly, water resourcemanagement is really needed for sustainable and adequate water supply for all.Most countries are adopting the IWRM to conserve water resource in a sustainableway.
To improve the implementation of the IWRM, decisionmakers need to learn thesuccessful practices from other countries. And the governors need to supportthe research institutes to be able to conduct more research in all sectors forwater resource management.Water is the commondenominator of energy, food, peace and security, poverty eradication.Therefore, it is at the foundation of sustainable development.Now a day the implementation of sustainable development goals is the priorityduty for all nations in the world. Without sustainable water resourcemanagement, sustainable development cannot be gained.
That is why we need tocollaborate each other to get the success of Integrated Water Resource Managementand Sustainable Water Management in order to implement the Sustainable DevelopmentGoals. ReferencesUn.org. (2017). November 9, 2017.
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