Taekwondo bends, or refracts, the rays that can pass

Taekwondo is a Korean
martial art, characterized by its
emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking
techniques. The name Taekwondo means the way of the foot and fist (Ronald A. Southwick). Various martial artists combined
the elements of Karate and Chinese
martial arts with traditional
Korean martial arts traditions in the 1940s and 1950s. Taekwondo, usually was
thought by most people as just a way of fighting and as being a brutal sport.
People consider it brutal because of the kicks, punches, throws, and arm and wrist
locks as they usually are not open minded enough to see the way it benefits
people especially children. Although a majority of it includes fighting,
taekwondo also helps a person with self-confidence, self-defence and


The eye is a sensory organ
of sight. Our eyes are responsible for four-fifths of all the information our
brain receives. Various structures in the eye enable it detects light and turns
into an image that can be recognised by the brain. Among the structures are
cornea, lens, and retina. When the opponent image light rays reflect off and
enter the eyes through the cornea, the cornea bends, or refracts, the rays that
can pass through the round hole of the pupil. The iris will the open and close,
making the pupil bigger or smaller to adjust the light entering the eye. The
light rays then pass through the lens, which changes shape, so it can further
bend the rays and focus them on the retina. The retina, which sits at the back
of the eye is a thin layer of tissue that contains millions of tiny
light-sensing nerve cells. These nerve cells are called rods and cones because
of their distinct shapes. Cones are concentrated in the centre of the retina,
in an area called the macula. When there is bright light, cones provide clear,
sharp central vision and detect colours and fine details. Rods are located
outside the macula and extend all the way to the outer edge of the retina. They
provide peripheral or side vision. Rods also allow the eyes to detect motion
and help us see in dim light and at night. These cells in the retina convert
the light into electrical impulses. The optic nerve sends these impulses to the
brain, which produces an image (Ker Than. May 5, 2016, How the Human Eye Works.
Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/3919-human-eye-works.html).

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The ear is one
of the sensory organs that help us to hear. An interesting point to note is
that the ear not only helps in hearing but also helps us to maintain the
balance and equilibrium of our body. Without the ear, we would not be able to
balance our body with respect to the gravitational pull of the earth. The inner
ear is the part that helps us to balance our body. The inner ear is involved in
both the functions of hearing and balancing. Two structures of the inner ear help to maintain
balance and equilibrium. The three semi-circular canals that are interconnected
and positioned at right angles to each other just like a gyroscope. The
vestibule has the saccule and utricle that connects the semi-circular canals to
the cochlea. The semi-circular canals and the vestibule of the inner ear
together help to maintain the balance and equilibrium of the body. Extreme
vibrations can rapture the eardrum and ossicles causing hearing loss.
Therefore, protective gears should be wear during a sparring. (Nithya Venkat. September
30, 2016. How Does the Ear Help to Maintain Balance and Equilibrium of the
Body? Retrieved from https://owlcation.com/stem/How-does-the-ear-help-to-balance-the-body.)



In terms of sparring, it is divided
into one-step sparring and free sparring. One-step sparring consists of two
partners exercising pre-arranged, attack and counterattack techniques. One-step
sparring is the first step in order to be able to do free sparring.  Practicing one-step sparring requires a high
level of concentration and cooperation on both people. The attacker must
perform each attack with proper execution and consistent timing. The defender
must react to the attack and counter attack without hesitation. Techniques
should be practiced extensively to a point where they develop a sub-motor
pattern that reacts out of instinct, without having to stop and think. In free
sparring, only light to medium contact is made. Protective gear is worn in accordance
with World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) standards. Only yellow belts and above
are eligible to participate in contact free sparring. Hand and foot techniques are
executed according to World Taekwondo Federation rules in order to score points
against your opponent. Although students are attacking and defending with great
speed and power, the emphasis is on controlled techniques, skills application
and safety. Each sparring round is formally begun and ended with a bow of
mutual respect. (Wallace Taylor, January 2010).


Side kicking or also known as “yeop
chagi” is a sideway kick with the hip turned slightly over, kicking leg
diagonally across the body, then extend the leg toward the target. The kick is
very powerful and can be done fast if trained correctly. It is difficult to
dodge sidekicks in taekwondo. In the mechanism of side kicking, the first step
is the athlete stands in the L-stance forearm guarding block and the right foot
forward. Both feet should be slightly pointed inwards and the toes of the foot
at the front should be lined up with the heel of the back foot. Both knees are
slightly bent. The term ‘starting posture’ comprises information on the stance
and the place where the attempted attack starts. The athlete moves the back foot forward in the direction of the intended
impact. The hands are held up in a guard. When the feet have touched the
ground, the ankle joint tenses and the athlete energetically pushes the right foot
off the ground. As a result of the right foot take off
the force pushes the foot upwards. Further movement is facilitated by the
muscles of the lower limb taking control over the movement. Medial hamstring,
adductor muscle, quadratus femoris and lateral flexors of the spins contracts. The
right quadriceps relaxes. Therefore, the knee and hip joints are extended (J
Hum Kinet, 2011).


In the comparison of athlete versus
the non-athletes, non-athletes tend to get an injury faster than athletes as
their muscles durability and flexibility is not trained. Furthermore, it takes
more time for the injury to heal for non-athletic person. Most athletes, have a
special recovery sessions. That is how they are much stronger in the case of
muscles durability.   Athletic
types have better overall health and has less percentage to develop certain
diseases such as type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. Regular exercise boosts your
immune system and lowers the risk of serious health conditions such as cancer
and heart disease. Taekwondo can also maintain cholesterol levels and blood


People who are in good shape
physically have greater aerobic capacity, meaning their lungs and heart are
able to provide more oxygen to muscles. They have also learned how to breathe
properly during exercise through training and coaching. Oxygen diffusion rate
of athletic person is higher because of their lung capacity such as the rib
cage enlargement and diaphragm contractions, which decreases the pressure in
lungs thus increase rate of diffusion. They also do the proper warm up
exercises before competing. As long as there is enough oxygen, the body will
not generate lactic acid to get the energy it needs. Athletes also know how to
pace themselves and not sprint more often than necessary. Frequent sprinting
will result in lactic acid build up.


Every person wants to feel safe and
able to protect him or herself and loved ones. For this reason, many people
turn to martial arts. Taekwondo emphasise all the tools and techniques needed
to protect themselves if necessary. In addition to blocking, kicking and
striking techniques, students will learn grabs, throws, and techniques to defence
and free themselves from an attacker.