SOUTHERN CROSSUNIVERSITYPREPARING FORSUCCESS PROGRAMFor use with online submission ofassessments Please complete all of the followingdetails and then make this sheet the first pageof each file of your assessment – donot send it as a separate document.
Your assessments must be submitted asMicrosoft Word, Excel or PowerPoint documents as specified in the Student Assessment Guidelines and assessmentspecifications in the relevant Unit Information Guide. Student Name: Lilli Pollard Student ID No.: 22929828 Unit Name: Studying Science Unit Code: EDU10448 Tutor’s name: Kerrie Stimpson Assessment No. 2 Assessment Title: Report Due date: 17/12/17 Date submitted: Assessmentcheck list: Placean X in the relevant boxes before submission: · Completed and attached electronic cover sheet X · 12 point font in Arial or Times New Roman X · Header with name and student ID X · Footer showing page numbers X Declaration:Ihave read and understand the Rules relating to Awards (Rule 3.17) as containedin the University Handbook. I understand the penalties that apply forplagiarism and agree to be bound by these rules. Exceptwhere appropriately acknowledged, this assessment is my own work, has beenexpressed in my own words, and has not previously been submitted for assessmentin this or another unit.
Signed: (please type your name) Lilli Pollard Date: 14/12/17 Introduction The definition of Homeostasis is the ability of the body orcell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium within its internalenvironment when dealing with external changes (“Homeostasis” 2016). In humans,homeostasis happens when the body regulates body temperature in an effort to maintaininternal temperature. During exercise the body needs to maintain a constant supplyof oxygen to your cells to support your working muscles, which may need 12 to25 times more oxygen than they need when latent (Mastrangelo 2013). Exerciseincreases the use of energy by your muscles, which activates a series of reactionsto create new energy to keep exercising and maintain homeostasis. The Harderyou exercise, the more energy is used, resulting in the body increasingbreathing rate more to maintain adequate energy levels for balance (Sherwood2017). The Heart’s main function is to pump blood throughout the body, and isable to regulate oxygen levels throughout the body, as it moves through thebody it supplies oxygen from the lungs to the cells. When the blood returns tothe heart it releases carbon dioxide for the lungs to exhale (Reichhold 2014).
Theseprocedures prevent homeostatic imbalance when active (Suleman 2015). Negativefeedback occurs when something changes in the body and requires three generalsteps. First, through a stimulus the receptor detects changes in the environment.Next, the receptor sends information to the control centre and lastly, if thecontrol centre responds it sends a signal to the effector (Seeley 2006). Tomaintain balance, your breathing rate must continue to stay at an elevatedlevel so your lungs can expel the excess carbon dioxide being produced by themuscle cells during exercise.
Once you stop exercising and the cells return tonormal energy needs, less carbon dioxide is created, allowing your breathingrate to return to normal (Sherwood 2017). My hypothesisis that exercise will increase perspiration levels and increase heart andbreathing rates, and will reduce after a two-minute resting break while thebody returns to homeostatic conditions. Method and Materials The experiment was carried out by a volunteer and anobserver to record the results. The volunteer first completed a pre-exercisescreening questionnaire to detect any health concerns (see Appendix). The questionnaire indicated that there were no healthconcerns and the volunteer could safely proceed with the experiment. Thevolunteer was female, age 19 with above average fitness ability. The experimentwas completed in a room inside a gym, with no sunlight to affect perspirationlevels, the warmer temperature could affect the levels. The volunteer’sexercise of choice was to complete continuous jumping jacks.
The materials usedin the experiment comprised of a stopwatch (mobile phone application) to recordthe time of the exercise and a pen and paper to record the final results. Beforethe exercise commenced the first results were recorded. The exercise wasrepeated eight times at two minute intervals and rates were recorded forfifteen seconds.
The outcomes of heart and breathing rates were multiplied byfour to reach the results per minute. The volunteer rested for two minutes afterthe exercise was completed and results were measured once again to detect theeffect that exercise has on homeostatic conditions in the body. The volunteer’s heart rate was measured by checking thepulse over the carotid artery. The breathing rate was measured by observing therise and fall of the volunteer’s chest and there was visible sweat on thevolunteer’s body to record perspiration. Results Table 1. Effects ofexercise over eight minutes on heart rate, breathing rate and perspiration level. Time (min) Heart Rate (beats/min) Breathing Rate (breaths/min) Perspiration Level (1-5) 0 54 20 1 2 109 27 1 4 137 34 2 6 148 45 2 8 161 54 3 2 Minute Resting Time 10 93 31 2 The heart and breathing rate increased progressively andperspiration level increased at about 4 minutes as shown in Table 1.
‘Figure 1 displaysthe heart rate rising throughout the eight minutes of exercise followed by adecrease after the two minutes of rest. The results demonstrate that during thefirst two minutes of exercise the heart rate increased the most.Figure 1. Heart rateduring eight minutes of exercise followed by two minutes of rest.After 4 minutes of exercise the breathing rate increased themost followed by a swift reduction after the two-minute rest period as shown inFigure 2. Figure 2. Breathingrate during eight minutes of exercise followed by two minutes of rest.
After four minutes of exercise the perspiration levelincreased, as shown in Figure 3, andthen declined after the two-minute resting time. Figure 3. Perspirationlevel during eight minutes of exercise followed by two minutes of rest.
Discussion During a bout of exercise, factors such as the exerciseintensity and duration interact to produce the overall homeostatic stress or “trainingload” of the session (Mann 2014). During exercise the heart rate significantly increases, asshown in Figure 1. The heart rate, breathing rate and perspiration levelsincreased during exercise as hypothesized, demonstrating homeostasis. Perspirationlevels increased over the eight minutes at a steady rate compared to the heartrate and breathing rate which increased swiftly (see Figures 1, 2 and 3). Conclusion The purpose of the research was to investigate howhomeostasis is maintained within the body in the context of heart rate,breathing rate and perspiration levels during exercise.
The breathing rate ofthe subject increased in order to raise levels of oxygen and expel more carbondioxide. Similarly, the heart rate increases due to the higher demand of oxygenfrom muscles. Whilst exercise is being conducted, the body temperatureincreases, this is why perspiration increases, cooling the body throughevaporation.
This is the result of exercise and the body maintaininghomeostasis. The results mirror the hypothesis, exercise increased the heartrate, breathing rate and perspiration levels and decrease during the restingperiod as the organs throughout the body begin to stabilize. References Biology Online (Ed.).(2016, September 24). Homeostasis. Retrieved December 12, 2017, from http://www.biology-online.
org/dictionary/Homeostasis Mastrangelo, J.(2013). How does the body maintain homeostasis in response to exercise. Retrieved December12, 2017 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/369714-how-does-the-body-maintain-homeostasis-in-response-to-exercise/#ixzz1pXRWeTMT Sherwood, C. (2017,September 11).
The Effect of Exercise on Homeostasis. Retrieved December 12,2017, from https://www.livestrong.com/article/480961-the-effect-of-exercise-on-homeostasis/ Suleman, A.
(2013).Pulmonary physiology during exercise. Retrieved December 12, 2017 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/88484-overview#aw2aab6b5 Reichhold, C. (2014,November 05). How The Heart Maintains Homeostasis. Retrieved December 12, 2017,from https://prezi.
com/us1wzq-mfdja/how-the-heart-maintains-homeostasis/ Seeley, R. R. (2006).
The human organism. In R. R. Seeley.
, T. D. Stephans., & P. Philip (Eds.
),Anatomy & physiology (7th ed., pp.1-23). Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill. Mann, T.
N., Webster, C., Lamberts, R.P. etal. Eur J Appl Physiol (2014) 114: 1809. https://doi-org.ezproxy.
scu.edu.au/10.1007/s00421-014-2907-9 Appendix (optional) ADULT PRE-EXERCISESCREENING TOOLThis screening tooldoes not provide advice on a particular matter, nor does it substitute foradvice from an appropriately qualified medical professional. No warranty ofsafety should result from its use. The screening system in no way guaranteesagainst injury or death. No responsibility or liability whatsoever can beaccepted by Exercise and Sports Science Australia, Fitness Australia or SportsMedicine Australia for any loss, damage or injury that may arise from anyperson acting on any statement or information contained in this tool.
Name: Maeme Robertson Date of Birth: 27/4/98 Male: Female: X Date: 12/12/17 STAGE 1 (COMPULSORY)AIM: to identifythose individuals with a known disease, or signs or symptoms of disease, whomay be at a higher risk of an adverse event during physical activity/exercise.This stage is self administered and self evaluated.Please circleresponse 1.
Has your doctorever told you that you have a heart condition or have you ever suffered astroke? No 2.Do you everexperience unexplained pains in your chest at rest or during physicalactivity/exercise? No 3.Do you ever feelfaint or have spells of dizziness during physical activity/exercise that causesyou to lose balance? No 4.Have you had anasthma attack requiring immediate medical attention at any time over the last12 months? No 5.If you havediabetes (type I or type II) have you had trouble controlling your bloodglucose in the last 3 months? No 6.Do you have anydiagnosed muscle, bone or joint problems that you have been told could be madeworse by participating in physical activity/exercise? No 7.
Do you have anyother medical condition(s) that may make it dangerous for you to participate inphysical activity/exercise? No IF YOU ANSWERED ‘YES’to any of the 7 questions, please seek guidance from your GP or appropriate alliedhealth professional prior to undertaking physical activity/exercise. IF YOU ANSWERED ‘NO’ to all of the 7 questions,and you have no other concerns about your health, you may proceed to undertakelight-moderate intensity physical activity/exercise I believe that to thebest of my knowledge, all of the information I have supplied within this toolis correct. Signature: MaemeRobertson Date: 12/12/1