especially the black native ones were constantly at loggerheads with their
government over violations of their basic rights. This escalated to undesired
and unimaginable proportions and in the process drawing attention of the
international community which took substantive measures to coerce the South
African government into toning down or doing away completely with its apartheid
included economic sanctions like the oil embargo in the 1960s, the motion to
expell South Africa from the UN and the South Africa being barred from
participating in the Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee
sanctions were protests from human rights organizations within South Africa
which transitioned to riots and violence whenever the police shot at unarmed
innocent individuals in the name of quelling the violence. Attempts by local
entities to petition the government to drop their hard line stand on apartheid
were met with excesses in terms of force and brutality by the ruling regime.
parties were no exception when it came to ‘racial cleansing’ by the dictatorial
apartheid regime. Any form of gathering in the name of politics was
deconstructed using excessive force by both the military and the police.
Political prisoners were either killed, detained or sent to a place of no
In light of
these violations pertinent measures were required to tone down on the negative
rhetoric, brutality, segregation and discrimination, hence the international
human rights treaty. There were calls for dialogue among other measures but
dialogue according to the African National Congress Leader then, Nelson Mandela
was the most viable and attainable approach.
There were a
series of talks pitting the then government led by Frederick De Clerk and the
ANC led by Mandela and his associates. After long discussions, consensus was
built on how to end apartheid based on a laid down procedure from the initial
to the implementation stage.
stages were talks and negotiations on how to bring all the parties on board to
a round table and discuss extensively on how to bring apartheid to its final
conclusion. Political parties and their leadership were the main participants
in these negotiations including all the white-led, black-led, Indian-led and
ethnic-led political parties. After extensive negotiations and wide
consultations marred by challenges, consensus was built.
The implementation stage included a lift on
the ban of non-white political parties, a new constitution complete with the
bill of rights, free fair, transparent and credible elections, release of
political prisoners, an inclusive government with opportunities for all, the
end to all violence related protests, on victimization of the parties involved
and the creation of a truth, justice and reconciliation commission.
The Human Rights Violations:
numerous human rights violations in South Africa at the time these include:
-The ban of
non-white political parties.
detention and exile on political prisoners.
-The right to
peaceful assembly was violated by violent crowd dispersion tactics by the
police and military.
all social places including transport, education, restaurants and sporting
Linkages Of Violations To The Human Rights Treaty:
Violation of Civil and Political Rights Treaty:
Any form of public gathering that took a
political twist was deconstructed using crude and violent crowd dispersion
techniques.Non-white political parties were also banned.
Violation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:
not accorded the opportunity to learn in the best schools, colleges or
not given the opportunity to indulge in white collar jobs let alone join trade
segregated and not allowed to mingle with whites at any available opportunity.
Violation of Discrimination Against Women Treaty:
were made to work under harsh conditions with the same work load as their male
counterparts. The same women were raped and tortured in the glare of the
government of the day. They were also not accorded the same opportunities that
their white counterparts enjoyed i.e. maternity leave.
Violation of Racial Discrimination Treaty:
of South African descent were racially profiled in all spheres of the society
from having their own public toilets, competing against each other in sports
and not participating in elections. They were also brought to book whenever
they infringed upon the white man’s territory.
Black South Africans were given opportunities in
sports where before they were not allowed to participate. They were also given
education, business to work unlike before where they only worked as slaves,
they were given right to land ownership and other more and that attributes to
the South Africa’s apex position in African economies.
South Africa has been a
case study especially Mandela’s inability to hold a grudge against the whites
after all they had put him and whole of South African people through. Countries
that went through or are still going through a similar ordeal can draw
inspirations from this great man Mandela. This also proved that injustice
somewhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
Descent housing was availed
for the Africans, Trade Unions were formed such as the Tripartite Alliance
which was formed after the banning of their political organizations unlike
before where there was police brutality on trade unionists for example the
arrest of six leading women trade union activists in 1981 among the other forms
of government sanctions harassment.
institutions were created to protect them from social harassment and to elevate
their living standards and this made the life of an average South African
catapulted to desirable heights.