SOLAR irrigation sector is in primitive stage because of

SOLARPOWERED AUTO SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEM  ABSTRACT- nowdays, even thoughirrigation systems are used in agricultural field to reduce dependency of rain,most of them are either regulated manually or having time based automation.

 as we know population increases so demand ofwater also increases. Lot of water is wasting due to improper method ofirrigation. Solar powered auto smart irrigation system enable us to control theirrigation system in a very smart way.

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For operation of irrigation system,electricity is required. So use of solar energy for power generation isessential to tackle current energy crisis. One of the major benefit  of solar panel  system is that due to rotation of the sun, it alsorotate with the direction of the sun.Keywords  – Moisturesensor, Microcontroller, Smart irrigation, Solar power Tracking. INTRODUCTION-                    Due to increase inpopulation, water demand has been increased and its availability becomes morecrucial than ever before 1.2 In developing countries, most of the availablewater is used for agriculture purpose 3. A source of energy to pump waterneeded for agriculture is also a big problem. In day to day life there isincreasing demand for energy, the continuous reduction in existing sources offossil fuels and the growing concern regarding environment  pollution,  have pressed  mankind  to explore new non-conventional, renewableenergy resources such as solar energy for the production of electrical energy5.

Solar energy is very interested subject flaming all over world in allsectors from space station to agro-irrigation because of unlimited availabilityof free solar radiation 5. Concerning to use of solar power in irrigationsector is in primitive stage because of lack of knowledge on design aspects. Inthis paper, we are going to study development procedure of an embedded systemfor solar based Off-Grid irrigation system. Solar power is absolutely perfectfor use with irrigation systems. Using Solar Panel, the sun energy willconverted to electrical power and saves in to batteries. When the sun is risingand shining, the solar panel will absorb the energy of the sun and the energywill keep in the battery 6.

Light Detecting Resistors (LDR’s) are placed onthe solar panel which helps in tracking maximum intensity of sunlight3.4.5. This tracking movement is achieved by coupling a motor to thesolar panel such that the panel maintains its face always perpendicular to thesun to generate maximum energy. This is achieved by using a programmedmicrocontroller to deliver signal to the motor to rotate the mounted panel asdesired. The microcontroller used in this system is from nano microcontroller.

Soil moisture sensor is placed inside soil to sense the moisture conditions ofthe soil 8. Based  on moisture sensorvalues, the water pump is switched on and off automatically 11. When moisturelevel of the soil is reaches to low, the soil moisture sensor is sending thesignal to microcontroller to start the pump by using stored solar energy.

Sametime, using GSM technique microcontroller is sending message on farmers mobileabout pump status. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives thesignal from the sensors through the output of the comparator, and these signalsoperate under the control of software which is stored in ROM of the microcontroller13. The LDR’s values, soil moisture values, condition of the pump i.e.

,ON/OFF are displayed on a 16X2 LCD which is interfaced to the microcontroller.15.16 METHODOLOGY-               System Description: Proposed irrigation systemis different from previous systems in such way that it is fully automaticcontrol system we control our irrigation system through GSM and solar paneltrack maximum sunlight with rotation of panel by using servo motorthistechnique is new in this paper.

This system  consists of two parts, Auto solar pumping andautomatic irrigation part. Auto Solar panel Tracking charges the batterythrough charge controller. From the battery, supply is given to the motordirectly in this work.  CIRCUITDIAGRAM- BLOCKDIAGRAM-                       Fig.1.Block diagram of solar powered irrigation system  Figure1 shows the block diagram indicating the main parts of solar powered irrigationsystem. Here the sensing circuit controls the motor. The sensors used are soilmoisture sensor.

The sensor detects the values at different points in the field.Microcontroller according to pre-set value compares the measured values. Basedon the error between the pre-set and measured values, motor ON/OFF condition iscontrolled.

  ACTUALDIAGRAM- Components used:  ·        Solar Panel, ChargeController & Battery·        Power Supply ·        Moisture Sensor ·        Relay ·        Microcontroller ·        LCD display·        Water Pump·        LDR·        Servo Motor·        GSM module A.  Solar Panel, Charge Controller & Battery                   A solar panel pumps electricity into a batterythat stores it, but the solar panel has no control over how much it does or howthe battery receives it. The charge controller (charge regulator) positionedbetween the solar panel and the battery regulates the voltage and the currentand essentially halts charging activity temporally when necessary. B.Power supply              A 12V dc supply of battery is fedto the 7805 regulators which converts it into regulated 5V DC supply.

It isthen, distributed to all the driver and relay circuits. 5V is supplied to themicrocontroller and to all ICs used in the system.   C.Soil Moisture            This Moisture Sensor can detect themoisture of the soil around the sensor, which is ideal for monitoring theindoor plants or the soil moisture in your garden.

It can be very to use, justinsert it into the soil and then read it. This sensor uses the two probes to passcurrent through the soil, and then it reads that resistance to get the moisturelevel. More water makes the soil conduct electricity better, while dry soilconducts electricity is poor.  D.Relay         Relay is also an electrically operated devicewhich consists of operating coil, two contacts of NC and NO which is elaboratedas Normally Closed and Normally Open contacts. When there is no supply to thecoil there is no change in the contact position. When supply is given to thecoil, the contact NO closes and NC opens. It is unchanged until the coil is inenergized condition.

 E.  Microcontroller                    Arduino controls the gatepulse of IR540N transistor, provide pulse width modulation (PWM) wave of 25 Hzon the gate terminal that connected through resistor, during our test Arduinocontrolled the working of boost converter, L.C.D Display and compare voltagevalues of input voltage, boost voltage and battery voltage. An Arduino isactually a microcontroller based kit which can be either used directly by purchasingfrom the vendor or can be made at home using the components, owing to its opensource hardware feature. It is basically used in communications and incontrolling or operating many devices. It lacks only a DC power jack, and workswith a Mini-B USB cable instead of a standard one. F.

LCD        The standard liquid display used in thiswork is HD44780U. It is 16×2 Display i.e. 16 Characters per 2 lines. The LCDdisplays the motor ON/OFF state and displays the quantity of moisture. G. Water Pump              DC powered pumps use directcurrent from motor, battery, or solar power to move fluid in a variety of ways.Motorized pumps typically operate on 6, 12, 24, or 32 volts of DC power.

Themain advantage of DC (direct current) pumps over AC (alternating current) pumpsis that they can operate directly from a battery, making them more convenientand portable. They are easier to operate and control, since AC systemstypically require a controller to manage speed. DC pumps also tend to be moreefficient. However, AC pumps usually are designed for higher speeds and largerbursts of power.

They also have a longer working lifespan than DC pumps. Aswith most pumps, the primary specifications to consider. When discerning DCpowered pump performance are flowrate, pump head, pressure, horsepower, and operatingtemperature.  H. Light Dependant Resistor (LDR)                              Twocadmium sulphide(cds) photoconductive cells with spectral responses similar tothat of the human eye. The cell resistance falls with increasing lightintensity. Applications include smoke detection, automatic lighting control,batch counting and burglar alarm systems.

A light dependant resistor also knowas a LDR, photoresistor, photoconductor or photocell, is a resistor whoseresistance increases or decreases depending on the amount of light intensity.LDRs (Light Dependant Resistors) are a very useful tool in a light/darkcircuits. A LDRs can have a variety of resistance and functions. For example itcan be used to turn on a light when the LDR is in darkness or to turn off alight when the LDR is in light. It can also work the other way around so whenthe LDR is in light it turns on the circuit and when it’s in darkness the resistanceincrease and disrupts the circuit. The sensitivity of a photodetector is therelationship between the light falling on the device and the resulting outputsignal. In the case of a photocell, one is dealing with the relationship betweenthe incident light and the corresponding resistance of the cell.

The way an LDRwork that they are made of many semi-conductive materials with high resistance.The reason they have a high resistance is that are very few electrons that arefree and able to move because they are held in a crystal lattice and are unableto move. When light falls on the semi conductive material it absorbs the lightphotons and the energy is transferred to the electrons, which allow them tobreak free from the crystal lattice and conduct electricity and lower theresistance of the LDR.

A light sensor or LDR can be very easily interfaced withan Arduino. The light sensor is connected to the analogue inputs of theArduino. One of the pins of the LDR is connected to the ground while the otheris connected to one of the 5 analogue in pins. Depending on the function of theLDR it may need another resistor connected to it. I. Servo Motor            A servomotor is a rotary actuatoror linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linearposition, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled toa sensor for position feedback.

Servosare controlled by sending an electrical pulse of variable width, or pulse widthmodulation (PWM), through the control wire. There is a minimum pulse, a maximumpulse, and a repetition rate. A servo motor can usually only turn 90° in eitherdirection for a total of 180° movement. The motor’s neutral position is definedas the position where the servo has the same amount of potential rotation inthe both the clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Servos are used in radio-controlledairplanes to position control surfaces like elevators, rudders, walking a robot,or operating grippers.

Servo motors are small, have built-in control circuitryand have good power for their size.   J. GSM (Global System forMobile Communication)               Weused GSM for sending a SMS about pump status to farmer / user. Global systemfor mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digitalcellular communication. A GSM modem can be an external modem device. Insert a GSMSIM card into this modem, and connect the modem to an available serial port.

 RESULTAND DISCUSSIONS-                         Now moving to thesecond part of the proposed system, the energy generated through the solarpanel will be sent to a DC battery. The battery will store the energy forfurther applications. Now we are connecting a water pump to the battery so thatthe motor should run on the power generated by the solar panel. In this systemthe water supply will be an automated one that means the pump will supply thewater only when the land needs it. Inorder to achieve this task we are making use of soil moisture sensor and a GSMmodule. The soil moisture sensors will be placed inside the field, and it willbe connected to the microcontroller. The moisture sensor will be continuouslysensing the moisture content of the soil and sending it to the microcontroller,where moisture content value will be compared with predefine level.

Nowwhenever the moisture level becomes less than the predefined level,microcontroller will send a command to activate the water pump. Same timemicrocontroller will activate GSM module, which will send a feedback message touser, stating that the “Pump on”. After the motor gets started and startssupplying water to the field; simultaneously the moisture sensor will besensing the moisture content and sending the data to the microcontroller. Sincethe field is getting water supply now the moisture level of the field willstart increasing, this increase in the moisture content will again will becompared with a predefined moisture level. When it will reach the predefinedmoisture level, pump will automatically off. Again GSM module will sendfeedback message stating that “Pump off”.

This water pump also works manuallyby pressing the key. Here threshold value of soil moisture content is fixed to200 by calibration. CONCLUSION-               By implementing above systemsthere are various benefits.

1. By continuouslymonitoring the status of the soil, we can control the flow of water and therebyreduce the wastage 2. Conservation  of water  and  labor: Since  the  systems are  automatic,  they  do  not require  continuous monitoring bylabor. 3. The design is low power,low cost, small size, robust and highly versatile.  4. This system avoids overirrigation, under irrigation, top soil erosion and reduce the wastage ofwater.

  5. The  main advantage  is  that the  system’s  action can  be  changed according  to  the situation  (crops,  weather conditions, soil etc.).  6. By implementing thissystem, agricultural, horticultural lands, parks, gardens, golf courses can beirrigated.               REFRANCES-1   K. Prathyusha and Chaitanya Suman, 2012,Design of embedded systems for the automation of drip irrigation, InternationalJournal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM),Volume 1, Issue 2. pp.

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