SOLAR irrigation sector is in primitive stage because of




ABSTRACT- nowdays, even though
irrigation systems are used in agricultural field to reduce dependency of rain,
most of them are either regulated manually or having time based automation.  as we know population increases so demand of
water also increases. Lot of water is wasting due to improper method of
irrigation. Solar powered auto smart irrigation system enable us to control the
irrigation system in a very smart way. For operation of irrigation system,
electricity is required. So use of solar energy for power generation is
essential to tackle current energy crisis. One of the major benefit  of solar panel  system is that due to rotation of the sun, it also
rotate with the direction of the sun.

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Keywords  – Moisture
sensor, Microcontroller, Smart irrigation, Solar power Tracking.



                    Due to increase in
population, water demand has been increased and its availability becomes more
crucial than ever before 1.2 In developing countries, most of the available
water is used for agriculture purpose 3. A source of energy to pump water
needed for agriculture is also a big problem. In day to day life there is
increasing demand for energy, the continuous reduction in existing sources of
fossil fuels and the growing concern regarding 
environment  pollution,  have 
pressed  mankind  to explore new non-conventional, renewable
energy resources such as solar energy for the production of electrical energy
5. Solar energy is very interested subject flaming all over world in all
sectors from space station to agro-irrigation because of unlimited availability
of free solar radiation 5. Concerning to use of solar power in irrigation
sector is in primitive stage because of lack of knowledge on design aspects. In
this paper, we are going to study development procedure of an embedded system
for solar based Off-Grid irrigation system. Solar power is absolutely perfect
for use with irrigation systems. Using Solar Panel, the sun energy will
converted to electrical power and saves in to batteries. When the sun is rising
and shining, the solar panel will absorb the energy of the sun and the energy
will keep in the battery 6. Light Detecting Resistors (LDR’s) are placed on
the solar panel which helps in tracking maximum intensity of sunlight
3.4.5. This tracking movement is achieved by coupling a motor to the
solar panel such that the panel maintains its face always perpendicular to the
sun to generate maximum energy. This is achieved by using a programmed
microcontroller to deliver signal to the motor to rotate the mounted panel as
desired. The microcontroller used in this system is from nano microcontroller.
Soil moisture sensor is placed inside soil to sense the moisture conditions of
the soil 8. Based  on moisture sensor
values, the water pump is switched on and off automatically 11. When moisture
level of the soil is reaches to low, the soil moisture sensor is sending the
signal to microcontroller to start the pump by using stored solar energy. Same
time, using GSM technique microcontroller is sending message on farmers mobile
about pump status. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the
signal from the sensors through the output of the comparator, and these signals
operate under the control of software which is stored in ROM of the microcontroller
13. The LDR’s values, soil moisture values, condition of the pump i.e.,
ON/OFF are displayed on a 16X2 LCD which is interfaced to the microcontroller.15.16



               System Description: Proposed irrigation system
is different from previous systems in such way that it is fully automatic
control system we control our irrigation system through GSM and solar panel
track maximum sunlight with rotation of panel by using servo motorthis
technique is new in this paper. This system  consists of two parts, Auto solar pumping and
automatic irrigation part. Auto Solar panel Tracking charges the battery
through charge controller. From the battery, supply is given to the motor
directly in this work.







Block diagram of solar powered irrigation system 

1 shows the block diagram indicating the main parts of solar powered irrigation
system. Here the sensing circuit controls the motor. The sensors used are soil
moisture sensor.The sensor detects the values at different points in the field.
Microcontroller according to pre-set value compares the measured values. Based
on the error between the pre-set and measured values, motor ON/OFF condition is



Components used: 

Solar Panel, Charge
Controller & Battery

Power Supply

Moisture Sensor



LCD display

Water Pump


Servo Motor

GSM module


A.  Solar Panel, Charge Controller & Battery

                  A solar panel pumps electricity into a battery
that stores it, but the solar panel has no control over how much it does or how
the battery receives it. The charge controller (charge regulator) positioned
between the solar panel and the battery regulates the voltage and the current
and essentially halts charging activity temporally when necessary.


Power supply 

            A 12V dc supply of battery is fed
to the 7805 regulators which converts it into regulated 5V DC supply. It is
then, distributed to all the driver and relay circuits. 5V is supplied to the
microcontroller and to all ICs used in the system.




Soil Moisture

            This Moisture Sensor can detect the
moisture of the soil around the sensor, which is ideal for monitoring the
indoor plants or the soil moisture in your garden. It can be very to use, just
insert it into the soil and then read it. This sensor uses the two probes to pass
current through the soil, and then it reads that resistance to get the moisture
level. More water makes the soil conduct electricity better, while dry soil
conducts electricity is poor.



         Relay is also an electrically operated device
which consists of operating coil, two contacts of NC and NO which is elaborated
as Normally Closed and Normally Open contacts. When there is no supply to the
coil there is no change in the contact position. When supply is given to the
coil, the contact NO closes and NC opens. It is unchanged until the coil is in
energized condition.


E.  Microcontroller

                    Arduino controls the gate
pulse of IR540N transistor, provide pulse width modulation (PWM) wave of 25 Hz
on the gate terminal that connected through resistor, during our test Arduino
controlled the working of boost converter, L.C.D Display and compare voltage
values of input voltage, boost voltage and battery voltage. An Arduino is
actually a microcontroller based kit which can be either used directly by purchasing
from the vendor or can be made at home using the components, owing to its open
source hardware feature. It is basically used in communications and in
controlling or operating many devices. It lacks only a DC power jack, and works
with a Mini-B USB cable instead of a standard one.



      The standard liquid display used in this
work is HD44780U. It is 16×2 Display i.e. 16 Characters per 2 lines. The LCD
displays the motor ON/OFF state and displays the quantity of moisture.


G. Water Pump

              DC powered pumps use direct
current from motor, battery, or solar power to move fluid in a variety of ways.
Motorized pumps typically operate on 6, 12, 24, or 32 volts of DC power. The
main advantage of DC (direct current) pumps over AC (alternating current) pumps
is that they can operate directly from a battery, making them more convenient
and portable. They are easier to operate and control, since AC systems
typically require a controller to manage speed. DC pumps also tend to be more
efficient. However, AC pumps usually are designed for higher speeds and larger
bursts of power. They also have a longer working lifespan than DC pumps. As
with most pumps, the primary specifications to consider. When discerning DC
powered pump performance are flowrate, pump head, pressure, horsepower, and operating


H. Light Dependant Resistor (LDR)

cadmium sulphide(cds) photoconductive cells with spectral responses similar to
that of the human eye. The cell resistance falls with increasing light
intensity. Applications include smoke detection, automatic lighting control,
batch counting and burglar alarm systems. A light dependant resistor also know
as a LDR, photoresistor, photoconductor or photocell, is a resistor whose
resistance increases or decreases depending on the amount of light intensity.
LDRs (Light Dependant Resistors) are a very useful tool in a light/dark
circuits. A LDRs can have a variety of resistance and functions. For example it
can be used to turn on a light when the LDR is in darkness or to turn off a
light when the LDR is in light. It can also work the other way around so when
the LDR is in light it turns on the circuit and when it’s in darkness the resistance
increase and disrupts the circuit. The sensitivity of a photodetector is the
relationship between the light falling on the device and the resulting output
signal. In the case of a photocell, one is dealing with the relationship between
the incident light and the corresponding resistance of the cell. The way an LDR
work that they are made of many semi-conductive materials with high resistance.
The reason they have a high resistance is that are very few electrons that are
free and able to move because they are held in a crystal lattice and are unable
to move. When light falls on the semi conductive material it absorbs the light
photons and the energy is transferred to the electrons, which allow them to
break free from the crystal lattice and conduct electricity and lower the
resistance of the LDR. A light sensor or LDR can be very easily interfaced with
an Arduino. The light sensor is connected to the analogue inputs of the
Arduino. One of the pins of the LDR is connected to the ground while the other
is connected to one of the 5 analogue in pins. Depending on the function of the
LDR it may need another resistor connected to it.


I. Servo Motor

            A servomotor is a rotary actuator
or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear
position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to
a sensor for position feedback. Servos
are controlled by sending an electrical pulse of variable width, or pulse width
modulation (PWM), through the control wire. There is a minimum pulse, a maximum
pulse, and a repetition rate. A servo motor can usually only turn 90° in either
direction for a total of 180° movement. The motor’s neutral position is defined
as the position where the servo has the same amount of potential rotation in
the both the clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Servos are used in radio-controlled
airplanes to position control surfaces like elevators, rudders, walking a robot,
or operating grippers. Servo motors are small, have built-in control circuitry
and have good power for their size. 


J. GSM (Global System for
Mobile Communication)

used GSM for sending a SMS about pump status to farmer / user. Global system
for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital
cellular communication. A GSM modem can be an external modem device. Insert a GSM
SIM card into this modem, and connect the modem to an available serial port.



                         Now moving to the
second part of the proposed system, the energy generated through the solar
panel will be sent to a DC battery. The battery will store the energy for
further applications. Now we are connecting a water pump to the battery so that
the motor should run on the power generated by the solar panel. In this system
the water supply will be an automated one that means the pump will supply the
water only when the land needs it.

order to achieve this task we are making use of soil moisture sensor and a GSM
module. The soil moisture sensors will be placed inside the field, and it will
be connected to the microcontroller. The moisture sensor will be continuously
sensing the moisture content of the soil and sending it to the microcontroller,
where moisture content value will be compared with predefine level. Now
whenever the moisture level becomes less than the predefined level,
microcontroller will send a command to activate the water pump. Same time
microcontroller will activate GSM module, which will send a feedback message to
user, stating that the “Pump on”. After the motor gets started and starts
supplying water to the field; simultaneously the moisture sensor will be
sensing the moisture content and sending the data to the microcontroller. Since
the field is getting water supply now the moisture level of the field will
start increasing, this increase in the moisture content will again will be
compared with a predefined moisture level. When it will reach the predefined
moisture level, pump will automatically off. Again GSM module will send
feedback message stating that “Pump off”. This water pump also works manually
by pressing the key. Here threshold value of soil moisture content is fixed to
200 by calibration.



             By implementing above systems
there are various benefits.

1. By continuously
monitoring the status of the soil, we can control the flow of water and thereby
reduce the wastage

2. Conservation  of 
water  and  labor: 
Since  the  systems 
are  automatic,  they  do  not 
require  continuous monitoring by

3. The design is low power,
low cost, small size, robust and highly versatile. 

4. This system avoids over
irrigation, under irrigation, top soil erosion and reduce the wastage of

5. The  main 
advantage  is  that 
the  system’s  action 
can  be  changed 
according  to  the 
situation  (crops,  weather conditions, soil etc.). 

6. By implementing this
system, agricultural, horticultural lands, parks, gardens, golf courses can be















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