# Sink much time that the egg was boiled for.Review

Sink or Swim: Salty EggsNatural SciencesExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator Teacher                                                Isabel Tinucci640 W. Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade 8Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose, Hypothesis, Testable Question Page 4Variables Page 5Review of Literature      Page 6Materials Page 9Procedure Page 10Results Page 12Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 14Reference List Page 16AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank my family and teachers for all the support and help along the way. Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to find how much salt it takes to make a boiled egg float and to test if the amount of time that the egg was boiled would affect the quantity. This experiment helps us understand buoyancy and the density of water and boiled eggs.Hypothesis If fresh eggs naturally sink then you will need 3 tablespoons of salt(in water) to make the boiled egg float (3 tablespoons is the average for all of the boiled egg times).Testable Question How much salt does water need to make an egg float, and does the time that the egg is boiled affect the quantity?Controlled Variables:  All of the eggs were boiled at the same water temperature and placed immediately in ice water to cool down. The eggs, when being tested, were submerged in 4 cups of water prior to the salt being added. When the salt was added, it was being added by using level teaspoons.Independent Variable:  The independent variable was the amount of time that the egg was boiled for. The boiling times were 0 minutes, 5 minutes, 9 minutes, 13 minutes, and 17 minutes.Dependent Variables: The dependent variable was salt that it took to make the egg float. This was affected by the independent variable, how much time that the egg was boiled for.Review of LiteratureEggs are a very well known food. They are a breakfast, lunch, and even dinner. Chicken eggs are laid by the female before being fertilized by the male. When an egg gets fertilized the yolk starts bonding together to form a chick. and the shell protects the forming bird. Non-fertilized eggs are composed of the shell, the membrane protecting the yolk and the white. The shell is made of calcium carbonate which makes it very tough. “The shell makes up 9-12 percent of an egg’s total weight, and contains pores that allow oxygen in and carbon dioxide and moisture out.”(livescience.com) Every egg has 7 to 17 thousand pores. When you boil an egg (unfertilized) ” Chemically, this is the process by which the chains of amino acids are changed from their original (or native) state. The heat coming from your stove denatures the protein by disrupting some of its bonds that held the molecule into shape. In the case of hard-boiled eggs, the proteins clump together and solidify, causing the egg white and yolk to harden.”(nature.com) This process is called denaturation. What makes an object float or sink in a liquid? If an object placed in a container of water floats, it’s because the object , is less dense than the water. If the object sinks it is because the object is more dense than the water and sinks. Density depends on how much mass is in the object. The force that makes an object float is called buoyancy. When something sinks it shows that the density of the object is more than the density of water, but is there a way to make something less dense? The answer to that question is yes. Salt and sugar are natural substances that can makes something float. It changes the density of the water and makes the molecules expand. When you take sugar or salt and place it into water it expands the water. “When salt, or many other substances, dissolves in water, the tiny particles (ions) of salt find places to fit in between the water molecules. Therefore, the water level doesn’t have to rise in order to hold the salt. If you keep adding salt, eventually you will reach a point when no more salt will dissolve, and at that point you will have a saturation solution.”(sciencenetlinks.com) After that the salt will have no more room left to go making the water level rise. This makes the water more dense than the object (in this case, the egg) and forces the object to float.Another key factor of an egg sinking is because it is a fresh egg. Fresh eggs sink because they are very dense. Interestingly, a spoiled egg will float because moisture has evaporated out of the pores of the gg and been replaced with gas. This reduces its density and causes it to float and rot! A boiled egg is also more dense than water but I was curious if boiling an egg for a long time would have a similar effect as spoiling an egg.Materials and ProcedureMaterialsQuantityEggs5 (all the same type – I used brown chicken eggs)Salt3-5 CupsWater25 cups (roughly)Pan1 (big enough to fit 4 eggs)Stove1Permanent Marker1Measuring UtensilsTeaspoons, Measuring cups, etc.Bowl3Cupsat least 5Mixing utensilat least 1Procedure#1: Gather all of our materials.#2: Boil 4(of the 5)eggs stopping them at different times.**to boil the eggs place the eggs in a pan and fill with water. Put the heat on high and let sit till the water is boiling. Now you can start your timer. Turn the heat on low and let the eggs sit in the hot water until the time is up for that certain egg.#3: After you take the egg out place it immediately in ice water. Let it sit for 5 minutes then take out and dry. Label the egg with the according boiling times. Egg #Boiling Times1NONE (fresh egg)25 minutes39 minutes413 minutes517 minutes#4: Label each bowl/cup with the same number as the eggs. (1 – 5)#5: Fill each bowl/cup with 4 cups water.#6: Add in 1 tps. increments or salt at a time. record each teaspoon that is added.#7: Stir for about 20 seconds or until all the salt is dissolved.#8: Gently let the egg into the water wait until the egg stops moving.#9: If:The egg is floating – proceed to step 10The egg isn’t floating – repeat steps 6-8#10: Move on to next egg.ResultsEgg #How much waterHow much saltTexture after boiledHow much time boiled for#14 cups12 tspFresh eggLiquid and squishynone#24 cups14 tspThicker and more like paste5 minutes#34 cups17.5 tspForming to take shape but not completely solid9 minutes#44 cups14.5Rubbery but still a solid13 minutes#54 cups16.5 tspComplete solid and boiled egg17 minutesConclusionMy science fair project examines how salt affects the density of water and how boiling eggs affect their density. I wanted to find out if the amount of time the egg is cooked affects how much salt it takes to make an egg float. I hypothesized that the average amount of salt it takes to make an egg float would be 3 tablespoons. I tested it by boiling eggs for different amount of times and then placing them in water and adding salt to the water and seeing how much salt it would take for the egg to finally float. I noticed or measured that the data slowly went up a little each time except for one outcast. This egg was the third egg and this is when the egg actually started to become solid in the boiling process. My hypothesis was proven incorrect. I know my hypothesis was incorrect because my data shows that the average amount of salt it take to make a egg float is 14.9 teaspoons. I learned that the time a egg is boiled does affect the egg somewhat and makes the salt amount increase but the amount of salt is mostly based off of the hardness of the egg inside.ReflectionI think that the test was fair except for one egg. For the majority the results were accurate and followed a pattern it was just that when the egg just became a solid the amount of salt skyrocketed but then came back down and followed the pattern that was occurring before. If I could change something in the experiment I would make sure that the water I used was the same temperature and to make sure that when I place the eggs in the water to see how much salt I needed then I would use the exact same temperature water.I would use the same materials but I would change the procedure but I would just make sure that the water temperature is the same for all and I would test each egg boiling time on 2 different eggs to get more accurate measurements. After completing this experiment I would like to see if the amount of salt gets changes with different eggs or maybe older eggs more than healthy eggs. I would have liked to further investigate on different eggs or try and get more accurate results in the data. ApplicationThis experiment could be used in a real life situation when scientists are trying to make the best swim gear and they need to find of a material is buoyant enough to push away the water and force the human to float. These results are important to the the field of science because they can help test floatation devices. This experiment connects to our lives because we use objects that require buoyancy in our everyday lives.. This experiment explains why sugar and salt force objects to float in a liquid, such as water.Reference Listhttps://www.localharvest.org/blog/26992/entry/facts_about_fertilized_chicken_eggs (facts of fertilization) http://www.sites.ext.vt.edu/virtualfarm/poultry/poultry_eggparts.html (egg picture)https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/impossible-egg-crush/ (how humans can crush the egg by hand)https://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/scibytes/why_do_eggs_hardboil (when you boil an egg)https://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/Density.htm (density)http://sciencenetlinks.com/media/filer/2013/12/03/eggs_summersheet.pdf (salt molecules absorption quote)https://food-hacks.wonderhowto.com/how-to/tell-if-your-expired-eggs-are-still-good-eat-0154309/  (Are expired eggs still good to eat?)https://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-nutrition/safe-food-handling-tips/ https://www.incredibleegg.org/eggcyclopedia/f/foam/ https://www.leaf.tv/articles/why-use-salt-when-hard-boiling-eggs/ http://dish.allrecipes.com/how-to-boil-an-egg/ (How to boil an egg)https://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-nutrition/  (Egg Nutrition)https://www.livescience.com/10043-dozen-extraordinary-egg-facts.html (Egg Fun Facts)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xra1regtIvM https://www.teachervision.com/density/do-objects-float-better-salt-water-fresh-water