Seminar Web Engineering – Winter Semester 2017/2018Master Web Engineering Student Technische Universität ChemnitzChemnitz, Deutschland1. IntroductionWe have experienced the fixed Internet coming forth with virtually every computer being connected today.
The Internet of Things (IoT), in which routine objects are able to connect to the Internet, tweet or be queried. While the impact on economies and societies around the world is undisputed, the technologies facilitating such an omnipresent connectivity have struggled so far and only recently started to take shape.This IoT Technology emerged new protocols and following section some of the IoT protocols and its Industrial application have discussed.2. Internet of Things (IoT)IoT has many definitions and so the IoT means different for different people, however, fundamentally it’s meaning and objective is same.Internet of Things = “Sensors and actuators embedded in physical objects are linked through wired and wireless networks, often using the same Internet Protocol (IP) that connects the Internet.
” – by McKinsey 1Cisco’s Internet of Everything – “Pervasive and ubiquitous network which enables monitoring and control of the physical environment by collecting, processing, and analyzing the data generated by sensors or smart objects.” 2.Figure 1: Internet of Things components 33. Internet of Things(IoT) Protocols3.1 Protocol OverviewThe IoT relates not only the ability to interconnect but also Internet-connect objects, things, machines, etc. This ability has three basic prerequisites. 4 A Low Power Communication Stack: Having sufficient energy for to power processing and communication is a very demanding requirement of IoT technology as the battery is a main source of energy for the most of the objects. A Highly Reliable Communication Stack: for the IoT communication The transport medium protocol should be very much reliable that is the Internet and as well as highly efficient.
An Internet-Enabled Communication Stack: The communication of IoT objects is bidirectional. So, ensuring the communication to and from objects is highly very important. Therefore, IoT is IP enabled.
These necessities emerge the new protocols for the IoT. There are several new emerging protocols that are needed by respective industries requirements. However, in this paper, just five major protocols are discussed in brief.3.
2 ZigBee ProtocolThe most IoT technologies have established on the IEEE802.15.4 standard. This standard defines a low-power Physical (PHY) layer and also defines a Medium Access Control (MAC). With this standard, ZigBee 1.
0 and ZigBee 2006 has been built. ZigBee is sort of very low power consumption, two-way wireless communication and very low-cost protocol. 18Figure 2: Outline of ZigBee Architecture 19Physical (PHY) layer: The IEEE802.15.4 PHY is a healthy trade-off between energy-efficiency, range, and data rate targeted at building sized networks. While the present standard defines multiple PHY layers, the most widely used is the one operating in the 2.4?2.485 GHz frequency band, a worldwide and unlicensed Band.
Access Control (MAC) layer: Each MAC frame consists of three fields MAC header, MAC payload and MFR (FCS).This MAC control field contains frame type field, which is the main differentiating factor in identifying one MAC frame with the other. The MAC frames are divided into four major categories as Beacon, Data Acknowledgement and MAC command. These categories are used by ZigBee devices to establish a connection to the PAN by exchanging system information.Network (NWK) layer: The ZigBee network layer (NWK) supports mesh topologies star and tree.
In a star topology, the network is controlled by one single device named as the ZigBee coordinator. The ZigBee coordinator is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. All other devices called as end devices which directly communicate with the ZigBee coordinator.Application Support Sublayer (APS): The application layer framework consists of the ZigBee device objects (ZDO) and the application support sub-layer (APS).
Manufacturer-defined application objects use the framework and share APS and security services with the ZDO.3.3 HART Protocol”HART” is an abbreviation for Highway Addressable Remote Transducer 20. The HART Protocol creates uses Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) standard to superimpose digital communication signals at a low level on top of the 4-20mA.
This allows two-way field communication establishment and causes it possible for additional information beyond just the normal process variable to be communicated to/from a smart field instrument.AHART is a two-way communication protocol that provides data access between intelligent field instruments and host systems. A host can be any software application from technician’s hand-held device or laptop to a plant’s process control, asset management, safety or other system using any control platform. Communication takes place between two HART-enabled devices, typically a smart field device and a control or monitoring system. Instrumentation grade wiring and standard termination practices assure dependable communication.HART allows two simultaneous communication channels, one analog, the other digital.
These two communication channels provide a complete field communications solution that is easy to design, simple to use, low cost and extremely reliable.HART technology is a master/slave protocol, which signifies that a smart field (slave) device only speaks when spoken to by a master. The HART Protocol can be used in various modes such as point-to-point or multidrop for communicating information to/from smart field instruments and central control or monitoring systems.Figure 3: HART Protocol Two Masters communication 21The HART Protocol allows for up to two masters (primary and secondary). This offers secondary masters such as handheld communicators to be used without interfering with communications to/from the primary master, i.e. control/monitoring system.WirelessHART is a wireless communications protocol for process automation applications.
It adds wireless capabilities to HART technology while maintaining compatibility with existing HART devices, commands, and tools. By design, WirelessHART using mesh networking technology.Each WirelessHART network includes three primary elements: Wireless field devices connected to process or plant equipment. Gateways allow communication between these devices and host applications A Network Manager is responsible for configuring the network, scheduling communications between devices, managing message routes, and monitoring network health.
The WirelessHART standard holds multiple messaging modes including one-way publishing of process and control values, spontaneous notification by exception, ad-hoc request/response, and auto-segmented block transfers of large datasets. These capacities permit communications to be tailored to application requirements thereby reducing power usage and overhead.3.4 IETF 6LoWPAN (IPV6 addressing)ProtocolThe Internet a packet passes through many different interconnected networks on its way from source to destination. Thus, considering the link layer technology of each traversed network, there needs to be an “IP-over-X” specification to define how to transport IP packets. In many cases, to map the services required by the IP layer on the services provided by the lower layer (i.
e, the link layer), the “IP-over-X” specification can introduce a (sub)layer of its own, often called adaptation layer.Following the same strategy, in the process of shaping the IoT world, the IETF IPv6 over Low power WPAN (6LoWPAN) describes the specifications for transmitting IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.
4 networks. In general, Low power WPANs are qualified by: small packet sizes 2, support for addresses with different lengths, low bandwidth, star and mesh topologies, battery supplied devices, low cost, large number of devices, unknown node positions, high unreliability, and long idle periods during when communications interfaces are turned off to save energy. 4Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses come from finite pools of numbers. For IPv4, this pool is 32-bits (232) in size IPv4 addresses and the IPv6 address space is 128-bits (2128) in size IPv6 addresses.3.5 IETF ROLL (routing) ProtocolRouting consequences are very challenging for 6LoWPAN, committed the low-power and lossy radio-links, the battery supplied nodes, the multi-hop mesh topologies, and the frequent topology changes due to mobility. Successful solutions should assume the specific application requirements, along with IPv6 behaviour and 6LoWPAN mechanisms. An effective solution is being developed by the IETF “Routing Over Low power and Lossy (ROLL) networks” working group.
Recently, it has proposed the leading IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs), RPL, based on a gradient based Approach RPL can support a wide variety of different link layers, including ones that are constrained, potentially lossy, or typically utilized in conjunction with host or router devices with very limited resources, as in building/home automation, industrial environments, and urban applications. It is able to quickly build up network routes, to distribute routing knowledge among nodes, and to adapt the topology in a very efficient way. For these characteristics, it is suitable also for smart grid communications. 43.6 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)The Constrained Application protocol is a differentiated Internet Application Protocol for constrained devices which is described in RFC 7228. It enables those encumbered devices named “nodes” to communicate with the wider Internet using similar protocols. This protocol is designed for use between devices on the same constrained network (e.
g., low-power, lossy networks), between devices and general nodes on the Internet, and between devices on different constrained networks both joined by an internet. CoAP is also being used via other mechanisms, such as SMS on mobile communication networks. 22CoAP is a service layer protocol that is proposed for use in resource-constrained internet devices, such as wireless sensor network nodes. CoAP is projected to easily translate to HTTP for changed integration with the web, while also meeting differentiated requirements such as multicast support, very low overhead, and simplicity. Multicast, low overhead, and simplicity are extremely significant for the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) devices, which tend to be deeply embedded and have much less memory and power supply than traditional internet devices have. Therefore, efficiency is very important.
CoAP can operate on most devices that support UDP or a UDP analogue.4. Industrial Applications of IoT4.1.
Application OverviewThe Internet of things (IoT) gives enormous benefits and IoT application are changing the way we work and live by saving time and resources and opening new opportunities for growth, innovation and knowledge creation. IoT applications are in the almost all filed and helping to improve, quality, efficiency, durability and superiority of product or services. 2.Some of the industrial IoT applications are listed as below and two applications are discussed in more detailed in the following section.
• Health-care – Smart Health 6• Manufacturing industry – Factory of the future 7, 16• Mining industry – Track the location of miners and vehicles and monitor vehicle status 8• Energy industry – Digital transformation with a smart grid transformation 9• Logistics and retail – Smart logistics and supply chain Management 10• Agriculture industry – Precision farming to control irrigation and improve fertilization strategie 11• Construction industry – Enhanced lean construction management 124.2. Health-care Application – Smart HealthThe smart health IoT application is used in clinical care unit where the hospitalized patient is needed to monitor constantly and necessitates close attention. The IoT system’s sensors collect comprehensive physiological information and use gateways and the cloud to analyze and store the information and then send the examined data wireless to the health professional for further analysis and review.
6.These techniques ameliorate the quality of care by using constant attention and lower the cost of care by ridding of the need for a caregiver to actively engage in data accumulation and investigation.Additionally, the technology can be used for remote monitoring using small, wireless solutions connected through the IoT system.
These solutions can be used to securely capture patient health data from a variety of sensors, apply complex algorithms to examine the data and then share it through wireless connectivity with medical professionals who can make appropriate health recommendationsThese smart health applications in health monitoring have a very close link between the following many components:• collection of data from sensors• hold user interfaces and displays• network connectivity for access to infrastructural services• low power, robustness, reliability, accuracy and reliabilityThe IoT plays a vital role in health-care applications, from supervising chronic diseases at one end of the spectrum to preventing disease at the other.Figure 4: Health-care Application – Smart Health 134.3. Manufacturing industry Application – Factory of the futureThe Factory of the Future is a research and technology initiative proposed to push emerging technologies to ameliorate the competitiveness of manufacturing processes by leveraging cyder-physical systems and big data analytics to enable a smarter, operator-centric production. 7.This type of automated manufacturing uses Smart tools such as Drilling Tool Measuring Tool and Tightening Tool.
These tools are a Key component of efficiency.Airbus has integrated digital tagging and supervising RFID (radio-frequency identification) technology to help contour and gain the efficiency of its industrial operations. By using RFID tags – tied to objects such as aircraft components and tools, and which are read automatically from distances of up to approximately 100 meters – Airbus can track and see its production processes in real-time. These IoT technologies have been deployed on the A330 and A350 final assembly lines in Toulouse, France, as well as for A400M wing assembly operations in the UK.Figure 5: Airbus production shop 145.
Demo: IoT application – Factory of the futureThe demo was a visualised animated presentation of Factory of the future.This visualised presentation is demonstrated that how a product would be manufactured in the fully automated and how the product assembly takes place at the different stages. In the factory of future, the fully automated manufacturing environment, operators and machines are collaborating in the same physical environment. It uses a modular platform and a key component in improved efficiency is the smart tools.
All shop floor is digitalised. The operator uses smart glasses to scan an aeroplane metal skin and determine what size of bolt is needed in a given hole and the torque required to install it.Figure 6: Factory of the Future 15This demo visualised the following stages of automated manufacturing:• Production control• Paperless production• Just in time and just in sequence the product assembly• Bracket free system installation by integrated panel• RFID identification• Laser controlled positioning• Screw-less robotic based joining technology• Digital printing of custom electronics• Cobot for any non-ergonomic area• Controlled by augmented reality• Integrated quality check and documentation• Progress tracking for the customer6. ConclusionThe IoT technology is shaping the better future of human being by giving enormous benefits as well as improving quality, efficiency, durability and superiority of products or services. IoT emerged several new protocols because of its fundamental prerequisites as low power, high reliability and Internet-enabled communications.
These new emerging IoT protocols fulfil these demand of IoT system as discussed.