Rosenzweig,Reibel, Greeson, Brainard and Hojat (2003) had done an experiment regarding themindfulness-based stress reduction lowers psychological distress in medicalstudents. They are interested to examine the effectiveness of the MBSRintervention in a prospective, nonrandomized, cohort-controlled study. In thisstudy, year 2 students from Jefferson Medical College took part in it.
Theywere taught MBSR course and expected to practice 20 minutes 6 days per week. Adidactic seminar on complementary was participated by control group. Resultshown baseline total mood disturbance (TMD) has a greater score in MBSR group. Aconclusion of MBSR may be effective stress management intervention was concludedby the end of this experiment.
The data for this experiment were collected from2nd-year students at Jefferson Medical College during year 1996 to2000. MBSR is a course which participants were taught several techniques includingbody scan, breath awareness, mindful stretching (Hatha Yoga) , eating meditation,walking meditation and guided imagery (mountain/lake meditations). Participantswere expected to practice the course 20 minutes per day, 6 days per week. Atotal of three hundred and three students took part in this experiment, onehundred forty of them received MBSR course and one hundred sixty two of themare in the control group which participated in a seminar that surveyedcomplementary and alternative medicine. All participants are in good health.The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered to all the participants atthe beginning and the end of seminar to measure six identifiable moods whichare Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor-Activity,Fatigue-Inertia and Confusion-Bewilderment. A total mood disturbance (TMD) isobtained through these scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) forrepeated measure design was used to examine MBSR and POMS to controlexperimental-wise error. However the TMD scores were not included in theMANOVA. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect significantchanges on TMD. Besides, it also examined the within-group differences in POMS.Results shown that POMS subscale scores were the dependent variables and groupstatus, MBRS and control groups, was independent variables. Thepreseminar-postseminar changes between two groups are p<.
01. Tension-anxiety and Confusion-bewildermentare shown decrease in ANOVA, Vigor-Activity were found significantly increase. TMDscores decreased by seven points in MBSR group. These scores suggested thatparticipants in MBSR group have an improvement in psychological health during aperiod of time. One hundred seventeen students rated mindfulness practical ashelpful/very helpful; ninety four students reported being more “mindful”.
Eighty students rated themselves as more effective in handling stressfulsituations. One hundred thirty students rated to recommended MBSR course toothers. Thus, this experiment is concluded that MBSR may be effective stressmanagement intervention for medical students.
However, some limitations can beovercome in future similar experiments.Inthis experiment, statistical analysis was performed to ensure the errors in thedata are at the most minimum rate. MANOVA and ANOVA are used to analyze thescores obtained from MBSR group, control group and POMS. ANOVA tests is to findthe difference in means between two or more groups, MANOVA tests is to find thedifference in two or more vectors of means. This helps to detect the changes ofscore and observe the changes in the scores.
Besides, this experiment used POMSto measure the psychological status of participants at the beginning and theend of the seminar. This test is a standard psychological test formulated byMcNair et al. (1971) which contains 65 words that describe feelings peoplehave.