of Related Literature
in this section are factual concepts of authorities on significantly
related topics. This is to establish clear framework of the concepts
and principles of the variables under study.
a study by Chapman
on 2010, it was stated that romantic engagement is a relative term,
but is generally accepted as a definition that discern moments and
situations within intimate and romantic relationships to an
individual as contributing to a significant relationship connection.
Also, the term romantic engagement is referred to as the addition of
drama to relationships of close, deep and strong love.
addition, adolescence scholar Collins (2003) made a compelling case
adolescent romantic relationships represent an important context of
human development, in particular by emphasizing that these
relationships likely integrate the functions of, and are in part
organized by, prior and contemporaneous experiences with parents and
separate research indicates that negative emotionality (e.g., anger,
ambivalence) in parent–adolescent dyads is predictive of poor
quality interactions with romantic partners in late adolescence (Kim
and Capaldi 2004). Thus, there is some evidence that individuals with
more supportive experiences with parents also tend to have higher
quality romantic relationships in adolescence.
Johnson, together with his colleagues, showed in their study on 2005
on couples’ interactions has tended to show benefits of positive
affective and behavioral patterns and a destructive impact of their
negative counterparts, yet the meaning and impact of a particular
emotional/ behavioral display may vary depending on the couple’s
developmental stage, as well as factors such as partner and conflict
relationships offer teens wonderful opportunities to pursue some
positive developmental tasks. Teens are gaining more autonomy from
their parents. They’re turning to peers—including romantic
partners—for support, information and social engagement. Early
experiences of infatuation and love provide chances to learn what
romantic relationships are all about. The relationships themselves
can be immensely rewarding. (Ha, 2016)
stated by Bamberger (2010), trust normally refer to a situation which
has accompanying aspects: one party (trustor) is eager to depend on
the movements of another party (trustee); the circumstances will be
guided of the future. In addition, those considered as a trustor
(voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control to those who perform
movements to the trustee. As consequence, those trustors are in doubt
of the result of the other’s movements; they can only develop and
is viewed in various ways, but most prominently divided into
different categories of general trust (anyone) or interpersonal trust
(close relationships). According to Couch, Adams, and Jones (1996)
trust is primarily looked at as trust towards people in everyday
situations, and trust involved with intentional relationships.
Trusting people in general is perceived by past experiences with
people in certain groups or a specific individual.
of the incorporated model about human trust in machines suggested by
Muir (1994) demonstrated that models of interpersonal trust catch
essential parts of the nature and flow of claiming human-machine
trust. Trust might have been fundamentally decreased at whatever sign
from claiming incompetence in the automation, besides the one which
needed no impact in the general framework performance. Operators’
trust changed a bit with experience, with a couple outstanding
exceptions. Doubt on trusting clinched alongside another function of
the same component, but did not generalize to another independent
automatic component in the same system, or to other systems. There
was a highly positive correspondence the middle of operators’ trust
and utilization of the automation; operators utilized mechanization
they trusted while they reject mechanization they distrust,
preferring will do the control undertaking manually. There might have
been an opposite association between trust and screening of the
mechanization. These outcomes recommend that operators’ subjective
appraisals about trust and the properties of the mechanization which
figure out their trust might be a chance to be used to foresee the
changing allotment from claiming works over robotized or automated
an online article from Harvard University, Hurley (2006) stated that
is a measure of the quality of a relationship—between two people,
between groups of people, or between a person and an organization.
There is already no need for a call of judgment when you already know
what to expect, especially on predictable cases where the question of
trust doesn’t arise. The conflict or confusion between certain
aspects such as outsourcing, mergers, downsizing, and changing
business models produces a training ground for distrust.
adolescent’s sensitivity starts at his/ her fear of being rejected.
Rejection sensitivity, as stated by Mellin (2008), is associated with
depressive symptoms for adolescents and young adults. These
depressive symptoms include isolation, having a hard time to sleep,
and in the worst case scenario, committing suicide.
sensitivity is also associated with self-silencing behaviors, whereby
individuals withhold expressing negative feelings and/or thoughts to
their romantic partners, for fear that such expressions might lead to
the end of their relationship. Additionally, rejection sensitivity is
related to dyadic interactions and romantic relationship health. For
example, rejection sensitivity is associated with cyclical,
aggressive behaviors between romantic partners, which is damaging to
both physical and psychological health (Galliher & Bentley,
key function of romantic relationships is to make people feel
accepted and loved, thus promoting well-being. Yet, many
relationships do not serve this function. Sensitivity to possible
rejection, as stated by Gunnar (2009), becomes particularly salient
during adolescence and rejection during this time predicts mental
health problems across the lifespan.
According to Owens & Batchelor (1996), responsiveness in the
context of a system can be defined as the outcome that can be
achieved when institutions and institutional relationships are
designed in such a way that they are cognizant and respond
appropriately to the universally legitimate expectations of
from the Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1986), the term
responsive was being defined as a thing that is quick to respond or
react correctly or even sympathetically. Synonyms of this term
include the words sentient, answering, possible, respondent, and
reactive (The New Roget’s Thesaurus, 1964).
the other hand, responsive means liable to be called on to answer,
liable to be called to account as the primary cause, able to answer
for one’s conduct and obligations; trustworthy, able to choose for
oneself between right and wrong (Websters, 1986). Synonyms are
answerable, accountable, dependable, reliable, stable (Roget, 1964).
Responsibility must begin with attention. To act responsibly we must
be conscious to know what’s calling us to respond (Bellah etaL, 1991,
term, as interpreted by Herraiz in 2016, refers
to a person’s willingness to give time and energy to something they
believe in, or a firm decision, a promise, to do something.
(1999) added that it is commitment that gets the job done. This
intense dedication is more powerful than our best intentions,
willpower, or circumstances. Without commitment, influence is
minimal; barriers are unreachable; and passion, impact, and
opportunities may be lost.
Several authors identify commitment as an important component of
successful market relationships because it gives rise to co-operative
behaviors (Dwyer, Schurr and Oh 1987; Morgan and Hunt 1994; Garbarino
and Johnson 1999). A relationship that is characterized by
cooperation between two parties is more likely to be long-term,
participative and focused on achieving service quality than one that
business to business relationships, such as those between a service
provider and a client, commitment is evident by investment decisions
that seek to establish and maintain long term, mutually beneficial
relationships (Beaton and Beaton 1995).
and mutuality. According
to Daniel A. (2016), equity is a major issue which confronts us in
public education. We must develop thought leaders in education who
represent and speak for the vast number of children in the world who
are not having the quality education they are entitled to. Striving
for Equity can
serve as a resource which has no value for superintendents and
leaders from other school systems.
Equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965) draws from exchange, dissonance,
and social comparison theories in making predictions about how
individuals manage their relationships with others.
Richard C. (1967) stated that equity theory proposes individuals who
perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will
experience distress, and that this distress leads to efforts to
Judith (1986) this paper explores relationships characterized by
mutual intersubjectivity, in which individuals relate to one another
based on an interest in each other as whole, complex people.
academic execution occupies a very important place in pedagogy as
well as in the acquisition process. It is considered as a key
criterion to judge one’s total potency and capacity (Nuthana &
Yenagi, 2009) which are frequently measured by the examination
results. It is used to walk judgment on the quality of education
offered by academic innovation . In fact, it is still the most
topical debate in higher learning institutions that caused great
concern to educator and researchers due to the alarming examination
performance of scholarly person.
to two separate studies by Elliot (2007) and Johnson (2003), the
importance regarding academic achievement is hardly ever questioned
and reaching unanimity concerning its measurement has been elusive.
The measurement about student’s academic performance continues to
stay a controversial topic among policymakers, measurements experts,
yet educators researchers have used a variety of ways to measure
academic achievement such as report card grades, norm point average,
measured check scores, teacher ratings, others cognitional take a
look at scores, standard retention, yet dropout rates (Burns &
Darling, 2009). However, for the purposes of this study, student
academic performance is defined by the degree to which a student is
able to accomplish a given class work in the school setting.
his widely cited paper, Romer (1993), which is one of the first few
authors to explore the relationship between student attendance and
exam performance, stated that a number of factors have contributed to
declining class attendances around the world in the last 15 years.
The major reasons given by students for non-attendance include
assessment pressures, poor delivery of lectures, timing of lectures
and work commitments (Newman-Ford, Lloyd & Thomas, 2009).
a separate study, Kochhar (2000) says proper guidance is necessary to
help the students with problems like lack of correlation between
talent and achievement , faulty study practice imperfect methods of
learning. Researchers have shown that the performance of the students
are dependent upon several aspects like learning facilities, age and
gender differences. The most significant factor with the positive
outcome on the performance of the students is competence of students
in English. Students having good communication skills it expands the
students performance (Abdullah, 2011).
and Soyibo (1998) further elaborated that student performance is very
much dependent on SEB (socio economic back ground)as per their
statement, “High school students’ level of performance is with
statistically significant differences, linked to their gender, grade
level, school location, school type, student type and socio-economic
to Levin and Tsang (1987) address this problem by developing a
theoretical model of the student time allocation problem using an
educational production function that is expanded by variables
representing student effort and time. It is assumed that the student
has resources in terms of both time and effort at his personal
disposal. They can combine these resources to produce activities
efficiently so as to maximize their utility. Using an example with
two activities, namely learning activity in school and out-of-school
activity, they suggest that an increase in instructional time leads
to a decrease in effort per unit of time and therefore the net effect
on educational performance will be small. They conclude that a
mechanical increase in instructional time does not automatically lead
to an increase in student achievement.
Tureman and Hartley (1996) cited that time management is positively
related to academic performance. The improper allocation of time, no
setting goals and priority, spending more time with friends or last
minutes preparation for examination, are some of the examples for
poor time management behavior which have been commonly discussed as a
prime source of weak academic performance.
since the 1920s, children’s temporal concepts were being put as a
subject for researchers and coming up with a conclusion that the
concept of time is complicated and difficult to teach children
(Fraisse 1984 et al. 1999; Piaget 1969; Zakay 1989). This literature
about research aims to show a theoretical framework to guide
researches to be conducted in the future about time-related teaching
in grade school. After preparatory considerations about the potential
of instructional interventions in this context, this review
critically checks the position of conceptions which are time related
within primary school curricula and explores which factors show an
influence on time’s concept.
Hair (2006) and Li-Grining (2010)found out in their studies that a
person’s participation in school-readiness screenings and preschool
programming has been importantly related to future school success.
Also, it was found out that the following predictors were also known
as the ones responsible in contributing to children’s readiness for
school: physical health, approaches to learning, social-emotional
development, language, and cognitive development.
a study related to the latter one, Guthrie and his colleagues have
confirmed on 2006 that a high number of stimulating tasks increased
student motivation and that motivation provides a good effect on a
student’s comprehension in reading.
(2009) found that distinguishing between authorized or unauthorized
absences is important for isolating the impact of low attendance. A
higher proportion of authorized absences to total absences is linked
to a positive relationship between reading and math test scores.
Conversely, students with a higher proportion of unauthorized
absences display lower achievement.
the empirical evidence on student time use, several studies deal with
the effect of course attendance on academic achievement. To a great
extent, these studies are based on samples of students in specific
courses (mostly economics courses). The overall finding is that
attendance positively affects academic performance (e.g. Schmidt,
1983; Park and Kerr, 1990; Romer, 1993; Durden and Ellis, 1995;
Devadoss and Foltz, 1996; Chan, Shum, and Wright, 1997; Bauer and
Zimmermann, 1998). Determinants of lecture attendance and selfstudy
are analyzed by Ryan, Delaney, and Harmon (2010). Estimating separate
regressions for both types of time use, they find that non-cognitive
abilities such as future-orientation and conscientiousness are
important for the amount of time students spent on both attending
lectures and self-study.
to Durden and Ellis (1995) investigated the link between overall
course grade and self-reported attendance levels in a sample of 346
principles of economics students over three semesters. Their results,
based on OLS controlling for ability and motivational factors (GPA,
college-entrance exam scores, having had a course in calculus)
indicate that attendance matters for academic performance. In
particular, whereas low levels of absenteeism have little effect on
the eventual outcome, excessive absenteeism has a large and
(2000) and Wadesango (2011), in a separate study, states that,
students who have problems in their absences generally suffer both
academically and socially. Absenteeism has long term effects in
academic and social performances; students who are often absent are
at higher risk of having a poor performance, and repetition than the
students who attend school everyday. Repetition may lead to a loss of
confidence and low self esteem for students due to the social stigma
associated with failure.
another study conducted by Chang & Romero in 2008, school
attendance adversely affects the other students in the class because
it causes the teacher to re-teach subjects. Research has shown many
times that absenteeism does affect student achievement.
to Robelle and Ronald (2016), educators agree that proficiency in the
English language is the basis for success in academic pursuits.
Reading, writing, and working with numbers are tasks that are based
on language skills describes this as the interplay between everyday
language skills and more advanced communication skills.
explain further, Grimm (2008) conducted a study that examined the
relationship between early reading skills and growth in math skills.
His study examined third grade students and found that students who
had a higher level of reading comprehension tended to learn problem
solving and data interpretation skills faster than those with weaker
study with a focus on reading comprehension explicitly related to
math was conducted in Turkey by Duru and Koklu (2011). The authors
looked at middle school students’ ability to read a mathematical
text and convert it into an algebraic equation and vice-versa. The
data from the study indicated that students had low reading
comprehension which prevented them from comprehending the
mathematical texts and algebraic equations representing those texts.
addition, Wanzek and Cavanaugh (2010) stated that the shift from
intervention being offered by a paraprofessional to a reading
intervention teacher may be because students’ reading scores at the
second-grade and third-grade levels consistently grow more rapidly
than their peers when they are engaged in high-level thinking about
the texts that they read.
a study conducted by Haworth, et. al. (2009) examined genetics and
learning disabilities. They found genetic correlations between
reading and mathematics disabilities of .61 and between mathematics
and language of .67. The results indicate a connection between
reading and mathematics in genes.
According to a study by Konishi, C., Hymel, S., Zumbo, B., & Li,
Z. in 2010, only a few empirical studies closely examined the link
between students’ feelings of safety and academic achievement
scores. Contributing to the field, Konishi, Hymel, Zumbo and Li
examined how academic performance is affected both by student
relationships with peers and with teachers too. Studies conducted
before have explored certain parts of school connectedness, but did
not provide a detailed and conclusive information on the influence of
school connectedness on the standard measures of academic
Lemberger and Clemens implemented the Student Success Skills (SSS)
program in 2012 as an intervention for the African-American
elementary school students located in the inner part of the city.
These students may experience racial discrimination which can be
absorbed by them and may lead to a “disidentification” with
school and academic success. As defined by a series of philosophic
precepts, the SSS Program can be categorized into two, namely, skills
that support feelings of school connectedness and how the student
regulates learning and social behaviors in school and beyond, as
stated by Villares and his co-researchers in 2011.
addition, Frydenberg et al. (2009) investigated two factors
associated with adaptation in early adolescence and their relation to
school connectedness. Coping, which is the first factor, is necessary
for people to deal with stress and problems. Students from middle
school are more likely to encounter stressors relating to family,
school, and peers in their lives and it was also reported that when
an adolescent is faced with a stressful situation which is
changeable, various problem solving strategies are more likely to be
used. If the situation is attributed as something that cannot be
changed, emotion-related strategies are more likely to be used; and
these include worrying or self-blaming of the individual.
Kim, Fisher, and Yoerger (2013) set out to discover the impact school
connectedness has on elementary-aged children in foster care with a
history of maltreatment and further found out that these children are
at an increased risk for academic failure, placement in special
education services, and dropout on school. Therefore, school
connectedness was hypotesized as something that would mediate the
outcomes in late primary level.
the study conducted by McNeely, Nonnemaker, and Blum (2002) noted
students who feel connected to school report higher levels of
emotional well-being. In 2002, Anderman concluded that higher
individual levels of connectedness were related to increase of
happiness or positive energy and lower levels of depression or
sadness. In line with this, researchers have discovered a positive
relationship between school connectedness and emotional well-being.
of academic success.
to Alexander et
a parents’ estimation of what mark their child is going to get in
math and reading is high. Since math and reading are much essential
as compared to the other fields of learning, a learning emphasis must
be applied to these. Balboni
and Pedrabissi (1998)
also added that parents’
expectations for their child’s learning performance are mostly
role of parental expectations in affecting children’s academic
progress has received substantial attention from psychologists and
sociologists over the past half century. In general, parental
expectations have been found to play a critical role in children’s
academic success. Students whose parents hold high expectations
receive higher grades, achieve higher scores on standardized tests,
and persist longer in school than do those whose parents hold
relatively low expectations
two meta-analyses have found that parental expectations are the
strongest family-level predictor of student achievement outcomes,
exceeding the variance accounted for by other parental beliefs and
behaviors by a substantial margin (Jeynes, 2005).