References client, creating a nursing diagnosis, planning treatment, implementing

Alan Mason Chesney
Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The. (n.d.).
Dorothea orem collection. Retreieved from
Balch, P. (n.d.). UAB – reynolds-finley
historical library – the life of Florence nightingale.           Retrieved from
Cooper, K., &
Gosnell, K. (2015). Foundations and
adult health nursing Vitalsource bookshelf (7th ed.).
Retrieved from

Good Therapy. (2015, July 6).
Abraham maslow biography. Retrieved from   

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Groff Paris, L., &
Terhaar, M. (2010, December 7). Using maslow’s pyramid and the national
database of nursing quality indicators to attain a healthier work environment”.
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in
Nursing. Vol. 16 No. 1.
Petiprin, A. (2016).
Dorothea orem therapy-nursing theory. Retrieved from

Steele, N.M. (2017). A
time to celebrate: Florence Nightingale. Urologic
Nursing. 37(2), 57-58. Doi:10.7257/1053-816X.2017.37.2.57

Florence Nightingale, Abraham Maslow, and Dorothea Orem
contributed to nursing significantly. The standards of care, the hierarchy of
needs, and the self-care deficit are some of the theories that make nursing
today one of the best careers in the world. Have you ever wondered what nursing
would have been like without their contributions?

The Self-Care
Deficit Theory has three theories: theory of self-care, theory of self-care
deficit, and theory of nursing system. The theory of self-care states that an
individual is responsible for their health. If at any given time, an individual
seeks medical attention, the self-care deficit theory initiates. During this
theory, establishing a trust relationship between the nurse and the client is
vital. The nurse and the client will work together to recover an optimal health
for the client. The client and the nurse both need to meet self-care needs. Theory of the nursing system requires that the nurse develops
a plan of care. It consists of assessing the client, creating a nursing
diagnosis, planning treatment, implementing care, and evaluating the care provided.
Overall, the client must always engage in their plan of care (Petiprin, 2016).

Dorothea Orem was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1914.
Orem’s life was full of successes. She obtained her M.S. in nursing education,
became a curriculum consultant of nursing in various universities and colleges
throughout the United States, and most importantly, published Nursing: Concepts
of Practice in 1971 where she outlined her theory of nursing, the Self-Care
Deficit Theory (The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives). Orem’s theory
recognized her as a leading theorist of nursing practice and education.

When applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to nursing
practice the goal is to prioritize care regarding the client’s current health
status. Life- and health-threatening problems are a priority among any other problem.
These types of problems fall under the level of physiological needs, which
include: oxygenation, nutrition, elimination, and sexuality. Establishing a trust
relationship between the nurse and the client meets the safety and security need.
Love and belonging needs require the family’s involvement in the client care.
Lastly, the client achieves esteem when there is courage to care for themselves
(Cooper & Gosnell, p.85).

Abraham Harold Maslow was born in Brooklyn, New York. He was
a humanistic psychologist and developed “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” (Good Therapy,
2015). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs includes the following five levels in
ascending order: physiological needs at the base, safety and security, love and
belonging, esteem, and self-actualization at the apex of the pyramid. A person
must meet their needs at each level before continuing up the pyramid. Those who
reach self-actualization know who they want to become in talents, skills, and
abilities (Groff & Terhaar, 2010).

established the standards of nursing care. She believed that nursing “ought to
signify the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet and
proper selection and administration of diet – all at least expense of vital
power to the patient” (Steele, 2017, p.58). These interventions helped reduce
death rates significantly. Soldiers admired Florence for her patience and
passion of care. They named Florence “lady of the lamp” because she always carried
a lamp during her night rounds. Florence Nightingale became the first nursing
theorist (Cooper & Gosnell, p.2)

             Upon arrival, Florence was unprepared to see
the horrid conditions of the British base hospital. Wounded soldiers were
either lying on the floor or on cots with soiled linens. Other issues included contaminated
water, clogged drains, and lack of medical supplies. Soldiers were dying from
diseases than from injuries caused by war. The picture reflected poor
sanitation and poor patient care (Steele, 2017).

Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy in 1820 (Balch). Her mission in life
was to serve the community by advocating wellness and preventing diseases and
deaths. The first step she took to initiate her mission was joining the British
military healthcare system in the 19th century. Her contributions
were in vain because in the 19th-century nursing was not a profession and women
rights were not equal to those of men (Steele, 2017). Florence, later, offered
her service to care for the wounded in Scutari, Turkey during the Crimean War
in 1856. The secretary of war agreed, and Florence sailed to the Scutari with a
team of nearly three dozen nurses (Cooper & Gosnell, p.2).

In the past, nursing was not a career. It was the women’s
job to care for the sick. Care of the sick took place in their homes. Sending
the sick to hospitals was a last resort. Hospitals were like poor houses
because of their high death rates, poor hygiene, and lack of infection control.
(Balch). Today nursing is viewed completely different thanks to the
contribution of the nursing theorist Florence Nightingale, Dorothea Dix,
Lavinia Dock, Mary Nutting, Dorothea Orem, Abraham Maslow, to name a few. Nursing
has evolved from being a simple occupation to an important profession. A profession
not only for women but for men too. In the following paragraphs, the focus is primarily
on Florence Nightingale, Abraham Maslow, and Dorothea Orem.

An Evolution of the World of Nursing



Metro Technology Practical Nursing

Veleria Marin

An Evolution of the World of Nursing