QUESTION 1: Climate Change 1.
1 Climateis defined as the average weather over longer time frames. The naturalgreenhouse effect maintains the normal atmospheric temperature of Earth.However, scientists have observed that since the beginning of 20thcentury humans have contributed towards increase in greenhouse gases,consequently resulting in change of global climate patterns and global warmingi.e. climate change.
The main cause of global warming is the increasedconcentration of greenhouse gases after the 18th century IndustrialRevolution. 1.2 · Floodsin the year 2010.· Heatwavein Karachi in the year 2015.· 2009 Karachi received 205 mm ofrain on 18 & 19 July. The normal rainfall at Karachi for the periods1961-1990 is 85.
5 mm.· 2001 heavy rainfall recorded inIslamabad which caused flooding in Lainullah.· 1998-2001 History’s worst drought gripped southern parts ofPakistan and parts ofsurrounding countries.
All theabove listed events relate to increased precipitation/increase in rainfall ordecrease in rainfall and heatwaves that are caused by change in climate patternof Pakistan. 1.3 · Earthquakein the year on 08th October, 2005.· Baldiatown factory fire incidence in Karachi.· Timeto time train collision/de-railing incidents in Pakistan Theabove listed events are not due to climate change because Earthquake occurs dueto geographic movement of plates, the fire incident occurs due to poor safetyprotocols and train de-railing / collision events occur due either to poorcommunication or terrorist activities. QUESTION 2:Research Methodology 2.
1 Iread a research article on Climate Change and Resource Sustainability which isavailable at https://www.cia-ica.ca/docs/default-source/2015/215068e.pdf Thearticle concludes that climate change has wide ranging effects on life onearth. These effects are eminent and climate change events have occurred.However, the author argues that there is a vital need that World as a wholerecognize this climate change and the countries that have more income andcaused much of the GHG emissions during last centuries must contribute moretowards controlling Global warming and GHG emissions.
The author also predictsthat humanity will require a radical change as we move forward to achieve thisgoal e.g. moving away from burning fossil fuels and effectively achieving zerocarbon emissions. 2.2 Igot interested in joining in GCISC after going through its advertisement whichclearly mentioned that this job is Research Based and the Centre will supportfor Higher Studies. I have the ambition to study further and do Masters in DataAnalytics, unfortunately, which I was unable to pursue due to limited financialresources.
Data Analysis is a very important field which can help getting aconsolidated output/conclusion from inputs of various data fields. I expectthat being part of this organization will help to achieve my goals i.e. topursue my studies and analyze various forms of data to achieve a betterunderstanding.
QUESTION 3:Science and Technology 3.1 Pakistanhas great human resource and potential to achieve scientific and technologicaldevelopment. The main cause of not achieving the desired output in Science andTechnology is due to lack of funds granted in the research field. Moreover,Pakistan is a developing economy and a major portion of our economy is consumerbased, therefore, the existing industry contributes little to none in theresearch field. Apart from that, Pakistan is also a victim of brain drainage.The best human resource is attracted by major World Economies and theseprofessionals are contributing in technology and development of developedNations. 3.2 TheAutomobile/Transport technology has affected adversely to climate.
In 2015 aconference was held in Islamabad on “Paving the way for Sustainable Transport inPakistan”, which concluded that transport sector is a major contributor inPakistan towards greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, generation ofgreen energy has affected most positively towards climate change. Generation ofelectricity through solar panels and other renewable sources will shift theoverall dependence from bio-fuels / fossils towards green energy.
QUESTION 4:Pakistan’s Current Affairs 4.1 Pakistan’s current population is207.774 million as per the 2017 population census carried out in Pakistan. Theannual growth rate comes out to be 2.4% over a period of 1998-2017. Pakistanhas the highest rate of population growth in South Asian countries. 4.2 · Environmentaldegradation occurs· Familyfood is limited as the demand increases.
· Poorpeople bear burden of population growth.· Largepopulation limit educational opportunities· Overurbanization and illegal migration. 4.3 · Additionalglobal warming due to land change use.· Generationof more greenhouse gases.· Resourcedepletion water, oil, fisheries etc.· Moregarbage, garbage disposal will be a big problem.
4.4 · Easyaccess to birth control· Bettereconomic and educational opportunities for women.· Improvingsex and relationship education in schools.
QUESTION 5:National and International Policies 5.1 Major goal of the Paris Agreement is thatecosystems, biodiversity, and land use can play in reducing greenhouse gasemissions and helping communities and countries reduce risks and adapt toclimate change impacts. In the Paris Agreement Government is obliged toformulate National Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and also adapt to the impacts of climate change in the context ofcoordinated global action. 5.
2 INDCstands for Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. This document issubmitted to UNFCCC because the said organization monitors how variouscountries are abiding to the MEAs. 5.3 Majorportion of greenhouse gas is Carbon Dioxide and water vapors. Pakistan needsmoney to reduce greenhouse emissions because it has to shift from conventionalenergy resources to towards green energy resources.
And as a developing countryit cannot afford at its own cost.