Positive ads: advertising that highlights a candidates qualifications, family, and positions in a positive light without referencing the opponent. These are significant because they highlight a candidates positive qualities. Mostly used by incumbents. Bush v Gore (2000): Gore wanted a recount of the votes in Florida and Florida authorized the recount. This is significant because it used the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment to stop the hand-counting recount.Swing States: A state that votes differently all the time, whether it be democrat or republican in presidential elections. This is significant because you can never count on these states to vote the way you think they may. McCain-Feingold Bill (BCRA): McCain lost to Bush because he outspent him. He created this bill in order to eliminate soft money campaigning. Limited hard money donations to $2,000 per candidate. This is significant because it was created so an election outcome like this wouldn’t happen again. Contrast ads: compares the proposals of one candidate to the other with a favoritism towards the sponsor. This is significant because they compare and contrast the candidates and they are seen as less harmless than negative ads. Direct mail: solicitation by an interest group with the goal of raising money and rallying support. This plays a significant role in the campaign process because it supplements your other solicitation efforts quickly and inexpensively. Issue ads: advocating a position or issue by people other than the candidates themselves. This is significant because it is often used as electioneering for candidates and has begun to be regulated starting in 2004.Federal Election Campaign Act: Passed in 1974 to reform campaign financing. This is significant because it created the FEC, limited campaign spending on behalf of presidential candidates, and attempted to limit contributions, while also providing public financing for electionsBuckley v Valeo (1976): Supreme Court upheld federal limits on campaign contributions. Also allowed candidates to give as much money as they’d like to their own campaign. This case was significant because it ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of protected speech. Campaign consultants: people and firms who sell technology, services, and strategies to candidates. This is significant because these are need to get the candidates elected. Hard money: political contributions that have a limited amount and fully disclosed. These are regulated by the Federal Election Campaign Act and by the Federal Election Commission. This is significant because raising this type of limited funds is much harder than unlimited funds. Matching funds: Based on the amount of private funds a candidate raises, the federal government determines the amount of donations the presidential campaign will receive. These are significant because it encourages candidates to raise more money because they will receive more funds. Negative ads: Advertising for one candidate that criticizes the opponent’s platform and character. This is significant because most ads people remember, are the negative, so they are used to make a larger impactSpot ads: TV advertisement for a candidate that occurs in a short amount of time; 10, 30, or 60 seconds. This is significant because they efficiently and effectively reach your audience. Platform: A political party’s declaration of its goals and policies for the next 4 years. This is significant because it is the best formal statement of a party’s stance Individual contributions: Individuals can only contribute $2,000, with an adjustment for inflation. These individuals are ideologically motivated, and fund candidates who share their same political views. This is significant because it allows individuals to support the candidates they agree with. Soft Money: Money raised unlimitedly by political parties in order to build up their party. It is virtually unregulated. This is significant because it’s spent on party activities like, gotv drives and helps build up the parties. Federal Election Commission: Created by the Federal Election Campaign Act. Administers campaign finance laws and enforces acceptance with the FEC requirements. This is significant because it supervises finances for election campaigns. Campaign Finance Reform: The campaign finance reform is the movement to alter the involvement of money in politics, especially in political campaigns. This is significant because so much money has been spent on campaigning they are trying to find ways to limit it. Political Action Committee (PAC): These are groups that were created and organized for receiving donations and directly or indirectly contributing money to the campaigns. These are significant because they represent the interest groups in the political process while raising money to elect and defeat candidates. War Chest: These are funds collected by the candidates that can be spent on campaigns. Usually collected by an incumbent or provided by a wealthy candidate to himself. This is significant because a win or loss will often depend on this amount. Citizens United v FEC (2010): Citizens United was a conservative non-profit organization. They released a negative documentary about Hillary Clinton and the case was to see whether the film could be defined as “electioneering communication” under BCRA. The court ruled that government cannot restrict independent expenditures for communications because it would violate the free speech clause of the 1st amendment. This was significant because it protected the peoples first amendment rights. McCutcheon v FEC (2014): Established two kinds of limits for campaign contributors. This is significant because the court ruled that political contributions are protected by the first amendment however, Congress may regulate campaign contributions to protect against corruption.