Polaribacter sp. SM1127 produces an extracellular polysaccharide containing Rha,

Polaribacter sp. SM1127, a member of genus Polaribacter,
was isolated from the brown alga Laminaria.
Bacteria of this genus have been isolated from different marine environments,
mainly from Arctic and Antarctic regions. Polaribacter sp. SM1127 produces an extracellular polysaccharide containing Rha,
Fuc, Man, Glc, together with a higher amount of GlcA and GlcN. The
polysaccharide, with a molecular weight of 220 KDa, showed a good viscosity and
antioxidant activity, thus representing a great potential in cosmetics as an
anti-ageing product. Futhermore, it showed moisture-adsorbing and retention
ability superior to that of ialuronic acid and glycerine actually used in
cosmetic field. This enhanced activity could be realted to the high percentage
of GlcA, Fuc, and GlcN residues. In addition, the cryoprotectant role of EPS
was tested on dermal fibroblast at 4°C. SM1127-EPS displaying protection to
fibroblast cells, could be used as component of cream to protect human skin
from cold injury (Characterization and
Biotechnological Potential Analysis of a New Exopolysaccharide from the Arctic
Marine Bacterium Polaribacter sp. SM1127. Scientific Reports | 5:18435 | DOI:
10.1038/srep18435 Mei-Ling Sun1,2,*,
Fang Zhao1,2,*, Mei Shi1,2, Xi-Ying Zhang1,2, Bai-Cheng Zhou2, Yu-Zhong
Zhang1,2 & Xiu-Lan Chen)

The bacterium Salipiger mucosus A3T
belonging to alfaproteobacterium class, was isolated from a solar Salter on the
Spanish Mediterranean seaboard. The production of the EPS from the halophilic S. mucosus was observed with all carbon
sources assayed, and the best yield was obtained at a sea-salt concentration of
2.5% (w/v). The cells stained with ruthenium red, and observed to TEM, revealed
a different morphology over the time: at beginning the polysaccharide appeared
strictly associated to the cell, while from the third day of incubation, it was
released in the surrounding medium as slime. The purified EPS, showed a
molecular weight of 250KDa and resulted composed by Glc, Man, Gal, and the
uncommon presence of Fuc. In addition, the presence of sulfate and phosfate
groups makes the polysaccharide interesting. In addition, EPS with high charge
density have a great potential for removing toxic metals from environment. S. mucosus EPS showed interesting
emulsifying activity with several hydrocarbons, compared with other already
used surfactant. Furthermore, it showed a higher emulsifying activity than
xanthan with crude oil. (Characterization
of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by Salipiger mucosus A3T, a Halophilic
Species Belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Isolated on the Spanish
Mediterranean Seaboard, Inmaculada Llamas 1, Juan Antonio Mata 1, Richard
Tallon 2, Philippe Bressollier 2,3, María C. Urdaci 3, Emilia Quesada 1 and
Victoria Béjar, Mar. Drugs 2010, 8,
2240-2251; doi:10.3390/md8082240)

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At first, bacteria belonging to the genus Zooglea were considered member of Pseudomonadaceae family, but
later they were differentiated for the production of a gelatinous matrix. Indeed,
the name Zooglea derived from Greek and means animal glue, referring to the
sticky feature of zoogloeal matrix (Dugan P.R., Stoner D.L., Pickrum H.M.
(1992) The Genus Zoogloea. In: Balows A., Trüper H.G., Dworkin M., Harder W.,
Schleifer KH. (eds) The Prokaryotes. Springer, New York, NY).

Bacterium Zooglea sp.
KCCM100376, isolated from the surface layers of seaweed Undaria sp., was
reported to produce two extracellular polysaccharide: a water-soluble
polysaccharide (WSP) recovered in supernatant after centrifugation of growth
broth, and a cell-bound polysaccharide (CBP) obtained from the precipitate.

GLC analysis revealed the same monosaccharide composition (Glc, Gal, and
Man) for both polysaccharide, even if in different molar ratio (Table). In
addition, IR spectra of these EPS suggested the uronic acid nature for some
sugars. Kwon et al. demonstrated that Zoogloea sp. KCCM100376 could grow and
produce polysaccharides without the addition of carbon source showing and that
most of glucose added to the medium could be converted to CBP or WSP without
the increase of cell mass (ISOLATION OF TWO DIFFERENT POLYSACCHARIDES FROM HALOPHILIC
ZOOGLOEA SP..  Kyung-Ja KWON, Kee-Jai
PARK, Jong-Deog KIM, Jai-Yul KONG and In-!& KONG’, BIOTECHNOLOGY LETTERS
Volume 16 No.8 (August 1994) pp.783-788). 
The molecular weight, measured by HPSEC, resulted to be 4*106 and
3.4*106 Da for WSP and CBP, respectively. Physicochemical and rheological
properties of both EPSs were evaluated. WSP and CBP showed good emulsifying and
flocculating activity compared with the other commercial product. In addition,
the water-holding capacity (WHC) was evaluated for WSP and CBP. The
refrigeration after freezing in food processing determines the loss of moisture
and soluble proteins, compromising the integrity of the product. Data indicated
that CBP displayed a water-holding capacity better than xanthan polymer, a common
polysaccharide used in this field of food processing, and that the activity
increased with concentration (Physicochemical Properties of the
Exopolysaccharides Produced by Marine, J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2007), 17(6),
979–984 Bacterium Zoogloea sp. KCCM10036. 
LIM, DONG-JUNG, JONG-DEOG KIM, MIN-YONG KIM, SANG-HO YOO, AND JAI-YUL
KONG). The viscosity analyzed for both EPSs, was higher for WSP than the CBP’s
at any concentration assayed. In addition, it showed a good viscosity at high
temperature, under pH variation, and in presence of salt.