Personal OpinionFactsAnalysis & evaluationLayout/StructureDefinitionsTo what extent should our focus on climate change shift from mitigation to adaptation?Aims/why?Investigate the impacts of climate changeUnderstand why certain countries focus on mitigation or adaptationAnalyse and evaluate different mitigation/adaptation strategiesIntroduction Define the terms adaptation & MitigationBriefly state the rate of increase in greenhouse gases(to be developed further in main body of essay)State the main focus of the essay – which is to analyse and evaluate whether we should focus on adaptation to the changes caused by climate change rather than trying to mitigate these effects.State the aim of the essay as whether to adapt to or mitigate the effects of climate change (such as increasing global temperatures)Break down what will be spoken about in the main body of the essay.This essay seeks to analyse and evaluate whether we should focus on adaptation to the changes caused by climate change rather than trying to mitigate these effects. The terms “adaptation” and “mitigation” are two important terms that are fundamental in the climate change debate. This will be done by analysing the effects of climate change and evaluating whether and how they can be mitigated/adapted to, then comparing to see which will be more cost effective and be better for the time to come. Adaptation is the act of changing something or changing your behaviour to make it suitable for a new purpose or situation this definition is taken from the collins dictionary in the 9th November 2017. Mitigation is a reduction in the unpleasantness, seriousness, or painfulness of something.The term mitigation refers to efforts to cut or prevent the emission of greenhouse gases – limiting the magnitude of future warming. It may also encompass attempts to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere this definition is as stated by the collins dictionary as of 9th November 2017. Mitigation can mean using new technologies and renewable energies, making older equipment more energy efficient, or changing management practices or consumer behavior. Mitigation can be as simple as reducing water usage or as complex developing new equipment that reduces the effect on climate change. Climate change has already began therefore we will not be able to go back to what it used to be. So the main focus of current research is to keep the climate at the same level. However this is becoming expensive as development of technology that has no guarantee it will work when we can possibly use these resources to develop simpler technology that will tackle our current problems and we can fight what is put in front of us rather than looking into the future to develop technology for things that might not even happen/occur. The rate at which the world is developing has caused a significant increase in emission of greenhouse gases. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the composition of greenhouse gases is 76% carbon dioxide CO2, 13% methane, 6% nitrogen oxide and 5%fluorocarbons. This shows us that Carbon dioxide is the leading contributor to global increasing temperature. Carbon dioxide is produced by eight major sectors specifically the power station sector and the transportation fuel sector as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change http://www.ipcc.ch/, 15th January 2018. Science may be the best at analysing events/current occurrences however prediction is very difficult, especially when it’s about the future this is why I believe it is better to focus on adaptation than to focus on mitigation.Impacts of climate changePoint #1Impacts of climate change in different parts of the world.Different countries are proving to be affected by climate change differently and to avoid doing research on every continents I will focus on specific continents that have been highly affected and what they are doing to either mitigate/adapt to those changes occurringMany countries have proven to be affected by climate change differently this has led the to try and find solutions to the ever changing climate. The first impact of climate change to be analysed in this section of the essay is the impact of climate change on tourism. A good deal of countries in this day and age rely on tourism as their main source of income, tourism also provides most of these countries with economic stability. Each of these tourist destinations has there own unique appeal, for example the Maldives is famous for its rich coral reefs which are in danger due to coral bleaching which is caused by the increase in temperature of the water in the ocean. In 2016 alone as published by the guardian newspaper 60% of the coral reefs in the Maldives were killed due to the El Nino climate which has demonstrated extreme temperatures therefore raising the temperatures of the water. Hotelier Maldives reviewed the annual tourism rate and stated that “With a total arrival of 1,286,135 inbound international tourists, the industry recorded an annual average tourist arrival growth rate of 4.2% in 2016 while the figure for 2015 was only 2.4%.” These figures are highly likely to drop if the coral reefs are completely bleached as tourist will feel there is less of a reason to go to the Maldives if they cannot go scuba diving or snorkeling. Moreover an increased amount of CO2 could decreases the number of organisms that are present in the ocean and on the beaches. The data shown above is as recorded by hotelier Maldives and was read on the 4th of January 2018. The second impact of climate change to be analysed is rise of sea levels. Countries that have the highest emission take on less of the burden of the effects of the changing climate. Countries such as Bangladesh and Haiti that are in some parts 100 metres above sea level and other areas less than 10 metres above sea level means they are more liable to flooding than countries such as the United States of America (USA) which have height ranging from 100 metres to about 5000 metres above sea level. This is an uneven spread of the effects as the United States contributes significantly more greenhouse gases to climate change than countries I.e. bangladesh. The United States emits around 14 percent of the carbon dioxide in the air whereas Bangladesh only emits 0.37% this shows that the United States emits almost 38 times more carbon dioxide than Bangladesh yet the people in Bangladesh are the ones who experience more hardship from these rising sea levels this information is according to the business insider on the 5th of January 2018. This extra carbon dioxide in the air gets trapped in the atmosphere which then forms a blanket that traps the heat between this blanket and the earth surface therefore causing a rise in the average temperature of the earth. Furthermore this rise in temperature causes ice caps to melt in places such as Antarctica, the ice that becomes liquid causes the volume of water in the sea to increase and hence the land in low lying countries to be lost to the sea. This land could be used as human settlements or farming land which will be explained in the third impact of climate change. Aside from the fact that they (Bangladesh) experience more hardships the countries economy does not perform anywhere near as well as the United States economy; this means that they are not able to rectify these effects of climate change without difficulty or as straightforward as it would be for the United States. Evidence that the United States economy is performing to a much better degree than that of Bangladesh can be seen by looking at the Gross Domestic Product(GDP) per capita of both countries which is the total output of a country divided by its population. This definition was taken from investopedia on the 25th of January 2018United States GDP per capita: $57,466Bangladesh GDP per capita:$1,358The figures above are as recorded by the World bank as at 2016, accessed on the 25th of January 2018The third impact of climate change is on Settlements and farm land used for both arable farming and pastoral farming. Referring back to my previous argument Bangladesh again is an example of a country that is low lying and has its land at risk of being taken up by the sea. Land closer to the sea in Bangladesh is used to grow crops such as rice and breed livestock such as cattle this is because the soil is very fertile however the increase in carbon dioxide causes it to dissolve in the water and make the water acidic therefore decreasing the fertility of the soil. In Bangladesh rice is harvested up to three times a year as stated by the nations encyclopedia; the people in bangladesh depend on these harvests to provide the food and income to keep their large families healthy but if this land is taken up by the sea they will not be able to plant these crops in fear of them and the crops drowning or the seed/seedlings getting washed away by the water. The fact that they have large families makes it even more complicated for them as they need to feed more people however they need these large families to help search for food and to take care of their parents as they get older. In addition their settlements could also be eroded by the sea living them with no shelter or food and due to the state of their economy they could be starving for days leading to all sorts of diseases such as malnutrition this could further decreases the countries GDP as there is a possibility that there will be a significant drop in production as people will have no land to farm. Some of these people could also begin to flee their countries in search for a better lifestyle hence adding to the already hectic refugee crisis around the world.