Palm Tunisian date palm plantations are characterized by the

 Palm dates (Arecaceae family)  are important fruits for most of population

East and North Africa countries. Dates are produced in 35 countries global and

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on about 2.9 million acres of land. In Tunisia, date palms occur in the

part of
the country (North latitude 34°25`), where the situation are most favorable for

and ripening of such valuable “dessert date” range as Deglet Nour. This variety

for 60% of the total production 1. Tunisia is the world-leading producer of

Nour 2. even if Tunisia represents only about 2% of the world’s production,
it is

leader in terms of value of exports with 30% of the total world’s export and it

with more than half of its Deglet Nour dates. Tunisian date palm plantations

by the prevalence of this variety in spite of their large genetic variety.  It is cultivated in the different region e.g
Middle East, North Africa, parts of Central and South America, Southern Europe,
India and Pakistan (Dowson, 1982; Zaid, 1999). Approximately 14 Species have
been categorized within the Phoeix genera and family Arecaceae has 200-210
genera and about 2,800 species, chiefly in the tropical and subtropical region
of the world; represented in Pakistan by 16 genera and 18 species of which only
two genera and three species are wild.Date palm is the giant phoenix species an grow up to 30m taller
(Barrow, 1998), it is a single trunked and contains dead leaf bases (Nixon,
1951). The full-grown date palm produces 100-120 leaves (3-5m).Male flowers are
fleshy and creamy while female flowers are yellow in color with sweet odor
(Chao and Krueger, 2007).Date palm produces aerial and basal suckers which are
further used for propagation purpose in order to obtain true to type progeny
(AlYahyai and Manickavasagan, 2012). Date fruit is highly nutritious with great
taste and flavor. The shelf-life of dates can be enhanced by sun-drying or by
placing in low temperature storage. Date is composed of high concentration of
carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins, fats, dietary fibers, minerals and low
amount of starch depending on the developmental stage (Vayalil, 2011). The palm family (Arecaceae, Palmae) is
resolved as a monophyletic group in all higher-level molecular studies of
monocots (e.g. Chase et al., 2000; Asmussen & Chase, 2001). During the last 10 years, substantial
progress has been made in the understanding of the relationships within the
family. Many estimates of palm phylogeny have been published at various
taxonomic levels. Nevertheless, numerous ambiguities have persisted, hindering
any attempt to rearrange the formal classification of the family, such as, for
example, the placements of the tribes Cyclospatheae and Phoeniceae, and of the
subfamily Phytelephantoideae. In this paper, which is focused strictly on the
circumscription of palm subfamilies, we shall refer primarily to those
phylogeny reconstructions that explore the systematics of the family at the
highest level (Uhl et al., 1995; Baker et al., 1999; Asmussen, Baker & Dransfield, 2000; Asmussen & Chase, 2001; Hahn, 2002a; Lewis & Doyle, 2002). We use the formal subfamily, tribal
and subtribal names in the sense of Dransfield & Uhl (1998), who divided the family into six
subfamilies varying in size from one genus (subfamily Nypoideae) to 112 genera.
For the subfamily Calamoideae, however, we use the classification of Baker,
Dransfield & Hedderson (2000a).
This study provides part of the justification for a forthcoming new
classification of palms based on phylogenetic data (Dransfield et al., 2005); we make references to the new classification, where appropriate,
within the figures and in the discussion section below.