PAKISTAN’S SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THETHREATS OF CLIMATE CHANGE1. Melting ofGlaciersAs a result of Global Warming, Glaciers located inNorthern mountain ranges of Pakistan, which include Koh Karakaram Range,Himalya Range and Koh Hindukash Range, are melting at rapid rate which can andhave caused floods in the Indus river and its tributaries. In the long term,these glaciers when melted completely will give rise to the severe waterscarcity in Pakistan. GLOBALLY: Melting of Glaciers results in increase ofsea of level which result in disappearance of Islands e.g.
it is predicted thatMaldives will completely sink by 2100 AD, thus causing danger to the coastalpopulation. 2. Rise inTemperatureRise in temperature increases heat index which resultsinto dryness of land, thus creating water level drop which in return give riseto drought which will further affect overall food productivity of the region. GLOBALLY: Further rise in global temperature of 1 Cwill cause desertification of more than twenty five percent of World’s Land. 3. Siltationof DamsDue to deforestation and flooding, erosion of landfills the dams with the silt deposits thus reducing the dams’ capacity to storewater. This leads to two issues:i. Reduction in energy production which declines ournational economic activity.
ii. Decreased capacity to hold water would result inflooding during monsoon season and on the contrary in the dry season these damswill be insufficient to cater for the agricultural needs of the country.4. SMOGSmog forms when smoke combines with fog underfavorable level of humidity. For the past few years Pakistan is suffering fromSMOG especially in and around the big cities like Lahore and Karachi.Reasons of smog are burning of fossil fuel in thevehicles and in the industry and burning of crops majorly in Indian Punjab.Smog is giving rise to various health problems likeallergies, asthma, irritation to eyes, throat and lungs infection and heartproblems. 5.
PakistanIndia Water DisputePakistan being a Lower Riparian state is at thedisadvantage when it comes to water sharing. In Indus Water Treaty of 1960, Pakistanwas given three Western Rivers including Jhelum, Indus and Chenab. After UriAttack, Indian PM Narindar Moodi gave statement “Water and blood cannot flowtogether”. This statement raised concerns among masses in Pakistan about thefuture of Indus Water Treaty. Construction of dams and barrages over WesternRivers has given India capability to dry or flood the lands of Pakistan. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONPakistan is among the lowest contributors of GreenHouse Gases emission in the world. However, it is one of the most affected countrieswhich are prone to climate change.
This vulnerability to climate change poses threats tofood, water and energy security of the country and it can be tackle by adoptingand implementing strategies to mitigate effects of climate change. WATERRESOURCES:Climate change is directly affecting the glacier andsnow melt in the North. For Pakistan, it is predicted that due to melting ofglaciers and irregularity in monsoon rains, for first few decades the flow inIndus River System will be increased and this will decrease subsequently.Moreover extreme weather conditions will cause flooding and droughts. Growingpopulation of the country also demands more water supply and in the coming dayswe can face severe water shortage. Following measures must be taken by theGovernment to combat the water crisis in the upcoming years:1. Constructnew dams.2.
Increasestorage capacity of already existing dams through de-siltation of those dams.3. Constructmore Underground canals (Karez) in Balochistan and Sindh to save water fromevaporating during extreme heat.4. Educate andgive subsidy to farmers to install drip irrigation system. This will help tominimize the water consumption.5.
Rainwaterharvesting projects must be initiated in major cities to keep underground watertable at optimum level.6. Introducelaw and regulations to inhibit excessive/ unnecessary water pumping.7. Deviseregulations and take measures to inhibit disposal of industrial and domestic wastewithout proper treatment. AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCKAccordingto Economic Survey of Pakistan 2016-17, 42.3 % of the labor force of country isrelated to agriculture sector.
19.5 % of GDP comprises of Agriculture sector. Extremeweather conditions directly affect the yield of crop. Elevated temperatures makecrops grow faster and reduced temperature slows the growth of crops. Bothsituations have negative impact on the crop’s productivity. Apart from this,water scarcity due to climate change and irregular pattern of rains also affectadversely on the crops. Following measures should be taken by the government totackle the issue: 1.
Develop suchcrops which are resistant to extreme weathers, pests, insects and which arehigh yielding.2. Farmersmust be trained to implement advance methods of farming.3. Weatherforecasting mechanism should be fast and reliable.