Pakistan is an immensely populated andmulti-cultural country in South Asia that encompasses many ethnic groups suchas Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Seraikis, Muhajirs, Balochs, amongst severalothers. It is most commonly known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which isa highly advanced and modernized civilization that retains the fifth largestpopulation in the world. With being a predominantly Indo-Iranian speakingcountry, Pakistan closely neighbors Iran, Afghanistan, India, and China. In1947, Pakistan became a sovereign state under the reign of Muhammad Ali Jinnah andattained independence from British rule.
Pakistan has endured many difficultiesthroughout its existence to attain political stability, social development, andeconomic security. The country’s capital is Islamabad, in the hillside of theHimalayas in the northern part of the country, whereas the biggest city isKarachi, which is located off the South shore of the Arabian Sea. The political structure of Pakistan takesprecedent within the framework that the Constitution established.
Pakistan is afederal parliamentary republic; whereby provincial governments favor an exceptionallyhigh standard of autonomy and residuary powers. Executive authority is bestowedin the national cabinet, which is spearheaded by the prime minister, who works systematicallyalongside the bicameral parliament and judicial assembly. Regulations set forthby the constitution provide a careful check and balance system in regards tothe sharing of powers with the branches of government, which make up theexecutive, judiciary, and legislature, similar to the United States. The headof state is Mamnoon Hussain, who is the President of Pakistan and was chosen bythe electoral college to serve a five-year presidency. The presidency was animportant component until the passage of the eighteenth amendment in 2010,which deprived the head of state of its absolute power.
Since then, Pakistanhas been changed from a semi-presidential system to exclusively a parliamentaryregime. The executive branch is composed of the cabinet and is controlled bythe prime minister, which is entirely independent on the legislature. TheSenate is the upper house, while the National Assembly is the lower house.
The judiciaryforms with the balance of the Superior Court as a culmination court, parallelto the higher courts, and other inferior court systems. The sole purpose of thejudicial system is to adjudicate the federal laws, regulations, and theConstitution.