p through generations. HRCP has reported that in most

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Trafficking in
persons is a crime that ruthlessly exploits women, children and men
for countless reasons, including forced labor and domestic servitude.
Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men,
women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and
sexual exploitation. The country’s largest human trafficking
problem is that of bonded labor, which is concentrated in Sindh and
Punjab provinces, particularly in brick kilns, carpet-making,
agriculture, fishing, mining, leather tanning, and production of
glass bangles (US Department of State TIP report, 2016). Having a lot
of push factors, it one of the places where children, women and men
are part of trafficking inside Pakistan, Middle East, Asia,
Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and in the United States. Parents sell
their daughters into domestic servitude, prostitution, or forced
marriages, and women are traded between tribal groups to settle
disputes or as payment for debts. The US State Department’s
trafficking report identifies bonded labor as the major triggering
factor behind human trafficking in Pakistan, whereby traffickers or
recruiters exploit an initial debt assumed by a worker as part of the
terms of employment, which sometimes persists through generations.
HRCP has reported that in most cases, they are given away for amounts
of money ranging from US$1,300 to $5,000 by impoverished parents,
sometimes in “marriage”; and sometimes to agents who
promise lucrative jobs as domestic servants in large cities (HRCP).
Child Trafficking
has remained embedded in Pakistan due to natural disasters, a large
number of Afghan refugees, porous borders, poverty and the presence
of the organized trafficking. According to the Karachi based
Madadgaar National Helpline, 190 cases of human trafficking were
reported in Pakistan in the first three months of 2012. The victims
included 112 men, 33 women and 45 children (Sparckpk.org). Political
and social instability in Pakistan allow these traffickers to expand
their networks and businesses. The United Nations Office on Drugs and
Crime (UNODC) said on Thursday that criminal networks operating in
Pakistan generated about $927 million through human trafficking and
migrant smuggling in 2013( Ahmed, 2015). This is a huge increase
compared to $797m in 2007. Existence of established routes used for
trafficking and smuggling can also be linked to terrorism in the
area, because these routes can also be used to move terrorists and
drugs across the country. Militant groups are also highly involved in
human trafficking in Pakistan, as they coerce their parents into
giving their children or kidnap them and later use these children as
spies, child soldiers or suicide bombers.

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Pakistan has a
serious problem of kidney trafficking along with other organs. It has
long been an international hub for the illegal kidney trade, however
due to the ineffective enforcement policies and lack of political
will, authorities have failed to act against this practice. Destitute
Pakistanis have for years been selling their kidneys in an effort to
pay off loans or to afford daily expenses or to buy their way out of
bonded labor. These people are usually paid at most several thousand
dollars, a tiny fraction of the six-figure sums or more paid to the
surgeons by the recipients, including rich. A kidney is sold to
foreigners for between four to 10 million rupees ($38,000 to
$95,000), but the donor gets less than 10 percent of that. Pakistan
outlawed the commercial trade in human organs in 2010, imposing a
jail term of up to 10 years and a maximum fine of one million rupees
($9,500) for doctors, middlemen, recipients and donors(U.S.).

According to
statistics of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, about 450,000
Pakistanis migrate each year, 300,000 of them illegally (HRCP).
Nearly 2.5 million Pakistanis travelled abroad over the past three
years for employment in countries like Malaysia, Qatar , Saudi Arabia
and UAE
among which 95% are
males. A Pakistani migrant worker may go abroad via different
agencies or institutions or independently. Almost all the migrants
living abroad were deceived by the recruitment agencies in either one
the terms: salary, working hour, type of job, rest day or facilities.
People fall in the hands of exploitation when they arrive on the host
country and have no knowledge
of the system, they
have their passports taken and are bound to the Kafala System. The
work
contract, visa and
passport arrive hours before the flight, and they have no say on
changing the
contract. Their
accommodation is filthy, harassing with un-sanitized bathrooms and
kitchens. When they complained about the situation, they were told to
be quiet or there would be consequences. The
migrant workers go
unpaid for several months at once, and their hopes of paying their
debt to
the recruitment
agencies keeps them bounded. (Qatar: Abuse of World Cup Workers
Exposed,
March 2016). Workers
tend to commit suicide, and their body being received back home only
after two or three
months.

Rehabilitation homes
are being built up, new partnerships are being signed, new protocols
and
plans are being
implemented, but trafficking is still a much serious issue to than
its present
state. In my view,
the legislature is still failing to properly prosecute traffickers
and address
victims. Major
government corruption and loop-holes in legislature counts for these
flaws.
Punishment should
not be given to survivors, instead they must have a free will to take
legal
action against their
traffickers. Strong law enforcements at prone areas should be there.
More rescue teams should be set up near the border areas and along
with the partnership of trained
police and NGO
members, suspects should be thoroughly checked and questioned.
Dignified
rehabilitation
centres should be set up. The government should hold strict rules for
employing
women in
restaurants, bars and the employers should be able to facilitate the
employees better.
Orphanage homes
should be under strict rules and their programs and child counts
should be
well monitored. The
involvement of children in factories, brick kilns, transportation
sector,
small hotels should
be monitored. Micro finance loans and study loans should be made
available to people
from trafficking prone regions, and special awareness should be
conducted
in these regions.
Separate policies for different areas of trafficking, Strict
surveillance to
monitor fake
documents, and transparency while applying to a job abroad should be
provided.
Results should be
collected from victim centered investigations and co-operation with
other
agencies would
decrease the load and increase efficiency with better plans. Long
term
strategies to
eradicate human trafficking rather than re-victimizing the survivors
should be
formulated in the
host country as well as the country of origin.