p through generations. HRCP has reported that in most

p { margin-bottom: 0.1in; line-height: 120%; }Trafficking inpersons is a crime that ruthlessly exploits women, children and menfor countless reasons, including forced labor and domestic servitude.Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men,women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor andsexual exploitation. The country’s largest human traffickingproblem is that of bonded labor, which is concentrated in Sindh andPunjab provinces, particularly in brick kilns, carpet-making,agriculture, fishing, mining, leather tanning, and production ofglass bangles (US Department of State TIP report, 2016).

Having a lotof push factors, it one of the places where children, women and menare part of trafficking inside Pakistan, Middle East, Asia,Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and in the United States. Parents selltheir daughters into domestic servitude, prostitution, or forcedmarriages, and women are traded between tribal groups to settledisputes or as payment for debts. The US State Department’strafficking report identifies bonded labor as the major triggeringfactor behind human trafficking in Pakistan, whereby traffickers orrecruiters exploit an initial debt assumed by a worker as part of theterms of employment, which sometimes persists through generations.HRCP has reported that in most cases, they are given away for amountsof money ranging from US$1,300 to $5,000 by impoverished parents,sometimes in “marriage”; and sometimes to agents whopromise lucrative jobs as domestic servants in large cities (HRCP).Child Traffickinghas remained embedded in Pakistan due to natural disasters, a largenumber of Afghan refugees, porous borders, poverty and the presenceof the organized trafficking.

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According to the Karachi basedMadadgaar National Helpline, 190 cases of human trafficking werereported in Pakistan in the first three months of 2012. The victimsincluded 112 men, 33 women and 45 children (Sparckpk.org). Politicaland social instability in Pakistan allow these traffickers to expandtheir networks and businesses. The United Nations Office on Drugs andCrime (UNODC) said on Thursday that criminal networks operating inPakistan generated about $927 million through human trafficking andmigrant smuggling in 2013( Ahmed, 2015). This is a huge increasecompared to $797m in 2007. Existence of established routes used fortrafficking and smuggling can also be linked to terrorism in thearea, because these routes can also be used to move terrorists anddrugs across the country. Militant groups are also highly involved inhuman trafficking in Pakistan, as they coerce their parents intogiving their children or kidnap them and later use these children asspies, child soldiers or suicide bombers.

Pakistan has aserious problem of kidney trafficking along with other organs. It haslong been an international hub for the illegal kidney trade, howeverdue to the ineffective enforcement policies and lack of politicalwill, authorities have failed to act against this practice. DestitutePakistanis have for years been selling their kidneys in an effort topay off loans or to afford daily expenses or to buy their way out ofbonded labor. These people are usually paid at most several thousanddollars, a tiny fraction of the six-figure sums or more paid to thesurgeons by the recipients, including rich. A kidney is sold toforeigners for between four to 10 million rupees ($38,000 to$95,000), but the donor gets less than 10 percent of that. Pakistanoutlawed the commercial trade in human organs in 2010, imposing ajail term of up to 10 years and a maximum fine of one million rupees($9,500) for doctors, middlemen, recipients and donors(U.

S.). According tostatistics of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, about 450,000Pakistanis migrate each year, 300,000 of them illegally (HRCP).Nearly 2.5 million Pakistanis travelled abroad over the past threeyears for employment in countries like Malaysia, Qatar , Saudi Arabiaand UAEamong which 95% aremales. A Pakistani migrant worker may go abroad via differentagencies or institutions or independently. Almost all the migrantsliving abroad were deceived by the recruitment agencies in either onethe terms: salary, working hour, type of job, rest day or facilities.

People fall in the hands of exploitation when they arrive on the hostcountry and have no knowledgeof the system, theyhave their passports taken and are bound to the Kafala System. Theworkcontract, visa andpassport arrive hours before the flight, and they have no say onchanging thecontract. Theiraccommodation is filthy, harassing with un-sanitized bathrooms andkitchens. When they complained about the situation, they were told tobe quiet or there would be consequences.

Themigrant workers gounpaid for several months at once, and their hopes of paying theirdebt tothe recruitmentagencies keeps them bounded. (Qatar: Abuse of World Cup WorkersExposed,March 2016). Workerstend to commit suicide, and their body being received back home onlyafter two or threemonths.

Rehabilitation homesare being built up, new partnerships are being signed, new protocolsandplans are beingimplemented, but trafficking is still a much serious issue to thanits presentstate. In my view,the legislature is still failing to properly prosecute traffickersand addressvictims. Majorgovernment corruption and loop-holes in legislature counts for theseflaws.Punishment shouldnot be given to survivors, instead they must have a free will to takelegalaction against theirtraffickers. Strong law enforcements at prone areas should be there.More rescue teams should be set up near the border areas and alongwith the partnership of trainedpolice and NGOmembers, suspects should be thoroughly checked and questioned.Dignifiedrehabilitationcentres should be set up. The government should hold strict rules foremployingwomen inrestaurants, bars and the employers should be able to facilitate theemployees better.

Orphanage homesshould be under strict rules and their programs and child countsshould bewell monitored. Theinvolvement of children in factories, brick kilns, transportationsector,small hotels shouldbe monitored. Micro finance loans and study loans should be madeavailable to peoplefrom trafficking prone regions, and special awareness should beconductedin these regions.

Separate policies for different areas of trafficking, Strictsurveillance tomonitor fakedocuments, and transparency while applying to a job abroad should beprovided.Results should becollected from victim centered investigations and co-operation withotheragencies woulddecrease the load and increase efficiency with better plans. Longtermstrategies toeradicate human trafficking rather than re-victimizing the survivorsshould beformulated in thehost country as well as the country of origin.