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These data should be a primary data and secondary data, both the dataare added each other and make it useful for users. Data is collectedfrom the different fields by using tools and techniques of researchmethod like an interview,questionnaire, observation, survey, focus group, etc. These tools arehelpful for a researcher and make the research result meaningful. In the field ofresearch, we have needed some research tools which is most importantfor a researcher to collect their research data. The questionnaireand observation are mainly used for the collection of data in thefield of research on a specific topic.

So, these tools help theresearcher to modified their research and developed the researchtopic2.2.Data collection:Datacollection is known as investigation or gathering of information, inrelevant to the topic of the study. It is a systematic approach tothe investigation of information from a variety of sources to get anaccurate result of an area of interest3.

In the nature ofdata and mode of collection, data should be classified into primaryand secondary. Primary data collection is an original collection of aspecific research topic and it has been collected from the field.Secondary data collection is a data that is. recorded by someone andis being reused. Both of data collection mainly depends upon thenature, objective and scope of investigation availability.

3.Tools for Data Collection:For the datacollection, the using of tools is very important for retrieved anaccurate information and that allow the researcher to collectinformation in systematically for their relevance of topic orresearch. There are many types of research tools, we are discussedonly two tools which is most important in data collection process.These are given below: 3.1. Questionnaire and 3.

2. Observation 3.1.Questionnaire:Aquestionnaire is a tools of research which is gathering the data fromrespondents. It is designed for statistical analysis of theresponses, the question must be easy to understand and able to answerof them4.

A researcher has to provide a question for retrieved or collect afact answer in relevant to research. L. Cohen, L. Manion, and K.Morrison define the questionnaire as “is widely used and usefulinstrument for collecting survey information, providing structured,often numerical data, being able to be administered without thepresence of the researcher, and often being comparativelystraightforward to analyze”5.

It provides a list of statements for respondents to indicating apoint of view to which they had to express a level of agreement ordisagreement6.The researcher willhave to judge the appropriateness of using a questionnaire for datacollection, what kind of questionnaire it should be for a collectionof data. 3.1.1.Advantage and Disadvantage of Questionnaire:The field ofquestionnaire design is provided a key element to indicating the mainissues of the research project. There are some advantages and somedisadvantages for questionnaire in a research. These are discussedbelow: 3.

1.1.1Advantage of Questionnaire It saves the money. Get information quickly Avoidance of potential interviewer bias. Get immediate information from respondents. Giving respondents a greater feeling of anonymity and encourage.3.

1.1.2.Disadvantage of Questionnaire: It takes more time to get factual information. The quality of data searching is complicated to find out the factual information through a questionnaire.

The using of the long questionnaire is troubled to respondents. Respondents’ can’t understand a complicated question and unable to answer. Researcher can’t control all the respondents Illiterate peoples are difficult to understand and they can’t give a proper answer to the question.

The written questionnaire does not allow an interviewer to correct misunderstandings or answer question7.4.Observation:An observation is atool of data gathering directly with the human beings to observe thebehaviour of respondents group and record the information. It impliesthat the use of eyes ear and the voice 8.According to Lindzey Gardner Observation is a “selection,provocation, recording and encoding of that set of behaviours andsettings concerning organisms ‘in situ’ which are consistent withempirical aims”9.In this sense, observer focus on the natural setting which increasesclarity of information and involved in recording this information.The observer has to focus on the activities of observing groupsbehaviour, physical action, spatial relation, temporal patterns,verbal records, etc. It determines the reality of behavior anddocuments the properties of the object.

The source of observation isbasically determined the respondent’s behaviours, gestures, tone,fashion, non-verbal expressions, facial expressions, participant’soral comments and where the interview takes place.5.Types of Observation Observationis basically classified into two parts. These are discuss below:5.1. Participant Observation and5.2 Non participant Observation5.

1. Participant ObservationParticipantobservation is the observer participates to study in a specificresearch topic and investigate the factual information throughparticipating himself in the field. The observer can understand howthe observed groups expressed their statements and emotional reactionwith interviewer10.The observer can get real or factual information from them. 5.2.Non-participant ObservationNon-participantobservation is the observer does not present in the activitiesof the group, but simply observes them from a distance11.

Non-participant observation can not understand the real informationand can’t clarify the factual information in the research. 2.1.Advantage and Disadvantage of ObservationForthe observation, there is an advantage and disadvantage to gather thedata with peoples in a specific field. Some respondents are able tounderstand the questions and some other respondents are unable tounderstand because of their literacy and researcher unable to getfactual information. These are given below:2.1.

1.Advantage of ObservationObserved natural activities; Able to conduct longer period; It is inexpensive; Modified at any time; Observer can directly check the accuracy of the observed; It uses common method as physical or social; 2.1.2.Disadvantage of Observation: Can’t control all the activities of human behaviour The measurement of behaviour is very difficult to researcher.

It is difficult to maintain the respondent’s anonymity They able to study only limited issues Lack of reliability It takes more time to get information. 1 Hox, J. J., & Boeije, H. R. (2005). Data collection, primary versus secondary.

2 Jaycox, L., Hickman, L., Schultz, D.

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Ltd. 4Wong, C., Aharoni, E., Aliyev, G., & Du Bois, J. (2015). Methods and Data Collection.

In The Potential of Blind Collaborative Justice: Testing the Impact of Expert Blinding and Consensus Building on the Validity of Forensic Testimony (pp. 8-15). RAND Corporation.

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt19x3gkr.10 5 Cohen, L.

, Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education 6th ed. London: Routledge 6 BABAN, S.

(1998). Developing a Holistic View of Geographical Information Systems. Geography, 83(3), 257-265.

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40573212 7 Hoyle, R.

H., Harris, M. J., & Judd, C. M.

(n.d.). Research methods in social relations. Belmont Drive, CA: Wadsworth. 8 Polkinghorne, D. E.

(2005). Language and meaning: Data collection in qualitative research. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 137. 9 Ahuja, R. (2001). Research methods.

Jaipur: Rawat. 10 .RANGANATHAM M., KRISHNASWAMI O. R. (2016).

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Methods of social survey and research. Kanpur: Kitabghar.