p.p1 text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color:

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px}
p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; background-color: #ffffff}
p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px}
p.p5 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px}
p.p6 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p7 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 36.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p8 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 36.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: #0000ff}
p.p9 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: #0000ff}
p.p10 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 36.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px}
span.s1 {font-kerning: none}
span.s2 {font-kerning: none; background-color: #ffffff}
span.s3 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}
span.s4 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none}
span.Apple-tab-span {white-space:pre}

Abello-Contensse, C. (2008). Age and the critical period hypothesis, ELT Journal, Volume 63, 
Issue 2, 1 April 2009, Pages 170–172, https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccn072

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Christian Abello-Contensse provided the key terms in his paper where he stated that children acquiring  a new language would have a better result in acquiring the language than when an adult tries. Stated that CPH is the period where optimal level of language attainment could happen. There are four (4) main points that were debated in the study, and these are 1.) the “multiple critical periods”,  2.) “the non-existence of one or more critical period”, 3.) “‘sensitive’, not critical period”, and 4.) “gradual and continual decline from childhood to adulthood”. Some studies negate the claim where in a child could have a better outcome than adults and while other studies support it. It concludes that both young and old language learners would be able to learn the language and that other than age, there are other factors affecting second language learning. Abello-Contensse’s paper would be helpful in identifying how age affects second language learning. It could be noted that this author is credible because of the book he has written with other authors about bilingualism and multilingualism indicating that this author is knowledgeable in his works. 

Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., & Lessard, P. (2006). A 
Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning. Retrieved from 
http://www.acpi.ca/documents/litreview.pdf

This review of related literature written by  The Language Research Center (LRC) of the University of Calgary that was centered on second language learning. The paper included some investigators that examined their work. The paper was intended for future researchers about learning a language to the people residing in a state called Alberta. The paper is centered on the effects of learning second language to a person’s first language. It also stated that introduction to a second language would not have any negative effects on a person’s first language; in fact, it strengthens skills in speaking and cognition. This could somehow negate the claims that a person’s first language could be affected if the second language being acquired is more practiced. Although there are some points about the teaching methods that could be used by teachers in addressing children acquiring a second language. This work could either help or support my bibliography on how age affects a person’s ability to learn a new language. 

Bialystok, E, Hakuta, K & Wiley, E. (n.d). Critical Evidence: A Test of the Critical Period 
Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved from 
https://web.stanford.edu/~hakuta/www/docs/CriticalEvidence.pdf

Ellen Bialystok, Kenji Hakuta and Edward Wiley conducted a study the had the participants of immigrants with backgrounds of Spanish and Chinese speakers. It had been stated that language proficiency does decline as the age of exposure to the second language increases. They also stated that according to a theory, the identified patterns could be the one hindering the way of learning. In addition, two (2) characteristics were stated that were used to assume the presence of the critical period hypothesis. There could be some negations seen throughout the study about the age related claims. There was claim about the claims on the periodic ranges of the Critical Period Hypothesis. The work defined Critical Period Hypothesis as something that is used to differentiate the success of a child and the failure of adults in learning a second language. In the end, they have concluded their study stating that the success of learning a second language declines with age alongside with other studies that support this claim. 

Birdsong, D., (n.d). The Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition: Tailoring 
the Coat of Many Colors. Retrieved from 
https://liberalarts.utexas.edu/frenchitalian/_files/pdf/davidbpdfs/TailoringCoat_DBird.pdf

The work written by David Birdsong about the Critical Period Hypothesis for second language learning focused on the period of the said critical period hypothesis. In his paper, he believed that as the brain matures, the ability of a person to attain a language at optimal level would be difficult. There were different claims that support and negate the claim that the perceived real period for learning a new language is from infancy to puberty as some stated that it could be early or later. Birdsong’s claim about the periodic range of Critical Period Hypothesis is somehow supporting Lennberg’s claim about the Critical Period Hypothesis ending at puberty, could be seen in the paper of Johnson and Newport (1989). Although some of the sources that were used are old and are out of date. He also identified other aspects concerning the Critical Period Hypothesis which may be of use as a source as a support to claims with the same periodic range. 

Hoff, E. (2014). Language Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Erika Hoff from the Florida Atlantic University wrote a book titled Language Development, is all about language acquisition and learning. Some of the topics that are seen in the book is the Critical period hypothesis and the Second Language Acquisition. There are other subtopics supporting claims that language can be best learned at an optimal level at a certain age and period in time. She also identified some language theories that are well-known and commonly used when researching about language learning. The book also tackles on the the methods that could be seen in the second language acquisition during a child’s childhood. There are also useful information in the book that could support and negate claims that were claimed in the studies. Hoff also used famous and known theories that she used throughout the book. Although there are various subtopics in the book, there are topics that are relevant to the topic of Critical Period Hypothesis which would be the focus of the Extended Paper.