p between humans and machines? The naturalisation of a

p { margin-bottom: 0.1in; direction: ltr; line-height: 120%; text-align: left; }a:link { }ArtificialIntelligenceandNationalIdentitythenaturalizationoftechnologyinthemakingofEuropeCeciliaPassanti1 RobothoodtheredefinitionofpoliticsboundariesThe24thofOctober2017attheFutureInvestmentInitiative,eventthatconnectsglobalinvestorstoinnovators1,SaudiArabiahasgrantedcitizenshiptoafemalerobot.Sophia,juicylipsandbigsmiles,isacompanionrobotandsheneedhumanstotrustherbecauseshewanttohelpthemlivingabetterlife(ArabNews,2017).Nomatterhergoodintentions,thepolemicdidn’ttakelongtopointoutthecurrentstateofSaudiwoman’srightsunderliningthatSophiawasnothidingherhairsintoherHijabandhershapesintoherAbaya(Condomninas,2017).

Isshesubjecttodifferentlawsthanother Saudi’swomen?Whatthiseventtellsusabouttheglobalandcontemporarypowerrelationsbetweenhumansandmachines?Thenaturalisationofamachine,complexsystemofcables,circuitsand softwaresblursboundariesbetweenartifacts(technologie)andhumans(nature),atthesametime that defineanewcategoryofsocialactors:thetechnologicalartifacts. Twomainproblematicsraisefromthisnewconfiguration.Iwillcallthefirstonethere-definitionofboundariesbetweenhumanandnon-human(Latour,1991)andbetweenpoliticsandtechnology2.Theredefinitionofpersonhoodandother coredemocracyconceptsascitizenship,governance,representation,publicopinionandparticipation-inanhistoricalmomentinwhichhumanidentityandbodyaredeeplyembeddedinto digital andtechnologicaltoolsinterconnectedtonetworksandinfrastructures(Larkin,2013)-puttechnologyattheheartofpoliticalanalysis.Westerdevelopmentoflarge-scaletechnologies,withinthecollaborationbetweenfirmsandgovernments,1http://futureinvestmentinitiative.com/en/home2TechnologieshavetheirownpoliticsasLangdonargued(Langdon,1986)showinghowtheyembodyspecificformofauthorityandpower.Societalandculturalcontextaremodifiedbytechno-logicalimplementationasforexampletheintroductionofdigitaltechnologyinelections(Passanti,2017)orthedesignofanewthecityplan.

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havereshapedgouvernanceand decision-making innewpoliticalconfigurationsil-lustratedbytheconceptoftechnopolitic:materialoperationthatdon’t looklikepoliticalbutthatorganizesmarket,objectsinsocietyandsocialorder.”Liberalismisaformofgouvernementthatdisavowsitself, seekingtoorganizepopulationsandterritoriesthrough technologicaldomainsthatseemfarremovedfromformalpoliticalinstitution”(Larkin,2013,328).Thecentralityoftechnologicalpoliciesand foundingincurrentpoliticsneedasystematicquestioningforabetterunderstandingofcontemporarypriorities.IntheSophiescenarioasinmany others, technologiesandthefirmstheyproducethemenjoydifferentrightsthanhumans(asweseeinthe globalfreetradeofproductscomparedtotheglobalflowofpeople).Sophia’scitizenshipisanationaldeclarationofpoliticalandeconomicalpriorities:technologyandinnovationcomefirst.

Thisleadustothesecondproblematic-thatIwillcallthetechnology-humanhierarchization-andthatconcernspublicpolicytrendtoput forwardpolicyinterventionthroughtechnologydevelopmentmediatedbytheprivatesectorinsteadofinvestingdirectlyin”humanprojects”.WhichkindoftechnologicalimaginariesanddesirablesfuturesarecurrentlyleadingEurope?IAdevelopmentisgloballyleadedbyinternationaleconomiesandcompetition.Today,USAhigh-tekfirmsareleadinginIA,machinelearningandrobotic.InthefirstplaceGooglethat havebeenbuyingthemostcutting-edgeIAfirmsworldwide,someoftheEuropeansandwho’sinvestinginIAtopushforwardthepotentialuseofthedatabaseonhumanitymakingthisknowledgenotjustreadablebutalsothinkableforthecomputer (Cadwalladr,2014).

IfNorthAmericaisdefiningworldpriority intermesofhigh-teckpossiblefutures,EuropeaswellhasarichandoftenunknownIAenvironment.AstheEuropeanCommissionAndrusAndsip’sblogshows,Europe”haslongunderstoodtheimportanceofroboticsandAI”(Ansip,2017).Whatthisimportanceisabout?2 State-of-the-technologyamacroandmicroperspectiveToaddresstheobjectofArtificialIntelligence’spublicpoliciesinEuropeweproposetolookattwosetsofscientificliteratureforadoubleresearchpurpose.(A)Ononesideweaimtoinvestigatetheroleofthisspecificscientificknowledgeandpractice(IAandRobotics) isthedevelopmentofauniformenarrativeaboutadesirablefuture that producecommunityidentityforscientists,engineers,fundrais-ers,foundersandusers(citizensofthisimaginedcommunity):asupranationalandmacroperspective.Academicswho’vebeendiscussing the roleoftheconstitutionofscienceandtechnologyinstatebuildingandinthe(re)productionofsocialpoliticalorderbelongmainlytoScienceTechnologyand/inSociety(STS). Thisdiscipline,thattranslatetechnologylanguageinpowerandpolitics’oneandtheotherwayaround(Latour,2004),analysetheroleofscienceandtechnology within thesocietywhoproducethem.Jasanoff(Jasanoff,2005,2014)haveanalyzedtheconvergencebetweenbiology-asabodyofdebatesonknowledge(OGM,steamcell,cloning,artificialreproductionetc.)-andpolitics,asthestatepolicyagenda.

Comperingpolicyonlifescienceindifferentcountry(Europeand USA)sheshowsaglobaltrend,privateaswellaspublic,in promoting biotechnologyandcalmingpeople’sfearsabouttheirrisks.SheidentifythreeaspectofcontemporaryWesternpolitics : democracytheoriesconceptscannotbeunderstoodwithouttaking intoaccountscienceandtechnologypolitics;lifepoliticsareincorporatedinthe”nation-building”process(whoareweasanation?);thewayinwhichcitizensunderstandpublicknowledgemodifythenatureofdemocracy.Inthiscontext,theauthorhaddefinedthetermofco-production (…)Weseehowcentralisscientificknowledgefornationsand nationalidentities. Inanotherwork,JasanoffanalysetheroleofsociotechnicalimaginariesinthebuildingofAfricanscountries.Sociotechnicalimaginariesare”collectivelyheld, institutionallystabilized,andpubliclyperformedvi-sionsofdesirablefutures,animatedbysharedunderstandingofformsofsociallifeandsocialorderattainablethrough,andsupportiveof,ad-vancesinscienceandtechnology”(JasanoffandSang-Hyun,2015,4)Theroleofthoseimaginariesleadcontemporarynationalandsupranationalpol-iticstoday evenmorethanyesterday.

TheintergovernmentalBigSciencecollabora-tioninEurope-atechnoscientifictendencyafterIIWorldWarwhopushedstates inlarge-scaletechnologicaldevelopmentfinancedbygroupsofgovernments -hasbeenexploredwithinterestingresults.Thisprocessestablishedsince1950forcompeteongloballevel,showshowtechnologicalintegrationonpolicyhavethesameeffectthanpoliticalintegration(Hallonsten,2014)Whiletheroleofothersciencesandtechnologiesinthedevelopmentofthena-tionalimaginaries,identityandunityhavebeenexplored.TheroleofAIandroboticsknowledgeandimaginariesaboutdesirableandhigh-technologicalfuturesintheEu-ropeanUnionconstructionisstillunexplored.(B)Ontheothersidethisresearchaimtoinvestigatethelocalepistemicmachin-ery,thecultural,structuralandproductioncontextsofthepracticelifeofaspecificknowledge(Knorr-Cetina,1999),ofIAandRoboticlaboratories.

Theobservation of thelaboratory”reallife”(Latour,1988)anddailypractice asaboundariesculturalcontext,subjecttoethnographicattentionsandmethods, continuesworksbegunbystudiesofcontemporaryscientificlaboratoriesinthelate1970whoaimstoinvesti-gatehowknowledgeisproducedinscience(LatourandWoolgar,1979;Knorr-Cetina,1981).Strategies andpoliciesofknowingandorganizingaproductionenvironmentbasedonknowledgeareatthecoreofthoseresearch:howIAscientistandlaborato-riesmobilizeactorsandsocietytothinkthatwhattheyaredoingistheanimportantprojectthatwillchangetheworldasweknowittoday?Thenumberofacademicswho’vebasedtheirfieldworksinAIandroboticsdevel-opmentlaboratoriesarenotthatmanyand-aswellastheresearchesonsociotech-nicalimaginaries-theybelongto the NorthAmericanacademy,reproducingtheglobalorder ofinventionandknowledgeproduction. Evenifthose laboratoryareoftenpublicfounded,societyleavescientistandtechnocratsdoingtheirjobbetweenthelaboratorywalls.

Oneexempleofthebreaking ofthisruleisRichardson’work(Richardson,2015).BasedattherobotslaboratoriesattheMassachusettsInstituteoftechnology(MIT),theauthoranalyze”howroboticfictionistaken intothelivedrealitiesofroboticpracticesandtransferredintothemakingofrobots,returningbackintothosefictions”(Richardson,2015,3).Howscience-fictionimaginariesinformrealinventionlife,theyaretakenintoaccountbyfoundersaswellasbyinventors.An-other exempleisHelmreich’sfieldwork,basedattheSantaFeInstituteofArtificialLife,thestudyof”possiblesbiological”formoflifeand environmentthatdoesn’texistincurrentunivers.Theautouranalyzehowtheinventionstructureofthebrandnew(completely inventedbiologicalorganism)isdependentfromculturalandtra-ditionalformofsocialorder(Helmreich,2000).ThedisciplinesengagedindefiningnewconceptsthatstandbetweenphysicalsciencesandhumansciencesareCyborgandComputingAnthropology(LeeDowneyetal.,1995),disciplineswhostudy theinteractionsbetweenhumansandtechnologies.

Thecentralroleofthosedisciplinesintheunderstandingofcontemporarypolicy,politicsandpowerinneoliberalcapital-ismethatrelieontheestablishmentoftechnologyasaformofgouvernancewhichgobeyondtraditionalpolitics.WhichkindofsociotechnicalimaginairesareoperatinginthemakingofEurope?3 IAandEuropeanpoliticalculturerobotenhancementforhumandevelopmentSince2013,theEuropeanCommunityhasinvestedinroboticsand AI.FromthisinvestmentisbornSPARC,The PartnershipforRoboticinEuropeinwhich”700millionofEUfunding for2014-20,bolsteredbyanextra2.1billionofinvestmentcommittedbytheindustry”(Ansip,2017).TheaimofthiscivilianrobotprogramistopromoteAIdevelopmentinEUand”tostrengthenEurope’spositionintheglobalrobotics market”(EuropeanCommission,2014).The internationalcompetitionforinventionandproductivityisatthecoreoftheproject.”istheEU’sindustrialpolicyefforttostrengthenEurope’spositionintheglobalroboticsmarket(60billionayearby2020).

Thisinitiativeisex-pectedtocreateover240,000jobsinEurope,andincreaseEurope’sshareoftheglobalmarketto42%(aboostof4billionperyear).TheEuropeanCommissionwillinvest700millionandeuRobotics2.1billion”(EuropeanCommission,2014)EnhanceEuropeanproductivityinrobotformakingthecommunity”notmerelyaconsumerofrobots”(EuropeanCommission,2014),willcreatejobs,andRoboticsforenablescompaniestocontinuemanufacturinginEurope,wheretheymightotherwisemoveoperationstolower-costcountries.

Thisrhetorics arepoliticalanddefinethepositionofEuropeintheexternalin-ternationalcontextandcontestbutalsointheinternalonunderliningsocialconcernasthelackofjobs,theexternalizationofindustryetc.Theaimofthisresearchistoinscribetheactual laboratoryandfoundraisingpractice ofscientists,engineersengagedinAIandRoboticsintheglobalcompetitionforinventionandproductivity.Thiswillallowtounderstandwhichdesirablefutureeuropeans investorsaswellasinventorsaredesigningatthesametimethatweunderstandthepoliticalpriorityofthe community. DoesArtificialIntelligencewillhelphumanbeingtoliveabetterlife?Whatistheir realimpactinbusiness,economyandinsociety(Dirican,2015;Makridakis,2017)?Thisprojectaimstoanswerthisquestion.Afisthypothesisarguethattheinternationalcompetitionforthefuturedesignofsocietiesisasupranationalpowercompetitionandtechnologicalperformancethatisnotnecessarilymotivatedbyrealeffectseconomicandsocialdevelopment.Iwilltrytoreducetechnologytohis”performativedimension”(JasanoffandKim,2013)toanalyzetherealeffectsofsociotechnicalimaginariesandtheir realeffectsonthesocietyinwhichtheyareproduced.IwilldisaggregatetheinternationalreferenceofEuropeantechnocratsandfromthepoliticiansdiscoursandpracticeontechnology,AI, and Robotdevelopment.

HowEuropeinscribeherselfinthisglobalcompetitionscenario? Which high-tekstrategyshe’sdevelopment? WhichR&Danduniversitypoliciesareimplemented?Howdoesnarrativesarepartofanaturalizedandnormalizedcontemporarypoliticalnarrative?Whichkindofgovernmenttheaimtopromote?Howliberalismandnewformofpost-industrialgovernmentfindtheirwayinEuropeanFoundingmobilizingthenarrativeofdevelopment,internationalcompetitionandthecreationofjobs?3.1 ResearchdesignEUfuturesdesignThisresearchaimsistofocusonthe”leavingpracticeoftechnosciences”(Richardson,2015,1)implementedinthreeEuropeanIAandroboticlaboratoriessituatedinthreedifferentcountry(England,France,Italy)3tounderstandthecommunityimaginariesandpracticeonhigh-technology.Theresearchdesignillustratedbelowgoesfromthegeneraltotheparticular-howdoesinternationalpolicies,legislationandfoundinginformpracticelaboratorylife?-forafter comingback-howlaboratorypractice,inventionandIA productionshapenationalandsupranationalpolicies,politicaldesignandimaginaries?FirstyearWeshallexplorefirst,thehistoryofIAinEurope,thelegislationsandlawimplemen-tationandthecommunitydevelopmentprograms.Acartographyofleadingfirms,organisationsanduniversitiesengagedinAIresearchforabetterunderstandoftheEuropeanIAecosystem. Whichspecificfieldanssector ofroboticsareprivileged(health,industry,softwares, customer relationshipmanagement,massproduction,trainingetc.)bytheCommunityandwhy?Towhichsectortheycorrespond?HowtheprivateandpublicsectorarticulateonetoeachotherinthedevelopingofIA?Whichpoliticalandtechnologicalimageriesbroughtto this development? Whichpublic interestresideinthisdevelopment? Howthisdevelopmentissupposedtorevolutionthe EuropeanCommunity? HowdoesEuropeanimagineitsselfsfacinginternationalimaginaryofpower?Secondandthirdyear3Temporarilychosenlaboratories:RethinkingRobots(UK)http://www.rethinkrobotics.com/;SoftBankRobotics (FR)https://www.

ald.softbankrobotics.com/en;COgnitiveDevelop-mentforFriendlyRObotsand Regabilitation(CODEFROR)(ITA)https://www.

codefror.eu/researchThehistoricalcartographyofIAinEuropewillinform the choiceoftheIAlab-oratorywhere the fieldworkwillbebased. WhichepistemiccultureorganizeAIknowledgeinEurope(Knorr-Cetina,1999)?Whichtheoriesareleadingthesector?HowlaboratorylifemenagetogetEUfounding?HowdoesIAisshapingthelocalenvironmentwherethe firmsisoperating? Howdoesitisshapingsocieties?HowEuropean roboticandAIinscribethemselvesandidentifynationallythemselvesinopposition toothernations,USAinparticular? Inwhichwaystheconceptofper-sonhoodinEuropeisshapedbytechnosciencesandthedevelopmentofhumanoids?Whichbeliefsandimaginariesareproduced?WewillseehowEuropeanidentityisdefined bytechnologicalandindustrialdevelopmentincomparaisonwithinternationaltechnologypowers. Supranationalknowledgeshapenationaltechnologicalculturealwayscomparingwith”anoutside”:the internationalcompetitionforthebestandmoreadvancedtechnology.Finally,thisresearchwilldiscusshowhumandefinehumanness inrelationshiptomachines,howexpertsandprofanerelationisdefinedinAIfieldandhowgendersareorganizedfocusingonphilosophyofscienceandtechnologyapproaches.Thefrontiersbetweentechnologyandpolitics,whichhavealwaysbeenporous,needtobediscussedforabetterunderstandingoftheimaginaryworkwho’sleadingtheglobaldecisionmaking.4 StatementoffitProfessorspersonaladvicesareraresandwhentheycometheydon’tgounnoticed.MorethanoneofthemhavepointedmetotheEUIPhd.

Thenumberofyearofen-gagementandthegrantsthatInstituteisofferingmakeofitoneofthemostwantedinEurope.Theradicalrevolutiontoapoliticalscience’sstudentlifethatthisPhdrepresentsisunique:itallowtotakeabrakefromtheincertitudeand the lackoflegitimacythathe.sheislivingsincehe.shehaschosentowritescientifictextsaboutsociety.

EUIseemstoprovideacommunity andculturalframeinwhichonecouldeasilypassfromthestudentstatustotheresearchonewithactivitiesthatintro-ducetothe universityepistemicmachinery. Myresearchfocusonanthropologyoftechnology,buildintheFrenchuniversityandimplemented onanAfricanfieldwork(Kenya) ledmetothedesiretogobackinmyhomecountry(Italy)forturningtheattentiononmy”communitypolitics”:the devicesofproductionofthe Europeanunionidentitythoroughtechnology and rhetoricofpossiblesfutures. Todayinsti-tutionlegitimacyandpolitics(re)production,strictly basedonexpertise,knowledgeand publicfoundingonscienceandtechnology. HowdoesEuropeisdesigningitsfutureandidentitywithintheinternationalcompetition?References Andrus Ansip. Making the most of robotics and artificial in- telligence in Europe, November 2017.

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Carole Cadwalladr. Are the robots about to rise? Google’s new director of engineering thinks so. . . , 2014. URL http://www.

theguardian.com/technology/2014/feb/22/robots-google-ray-kurzweil-terminator-singularity-artificial-intelligence. Baptiste Condomninas.

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EU launches world’s largest civilian robotics programme. 240,000 new jobs expected., June 2014. URL http://europa.eu/rapid/ press-release_IP-14-619_en.

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