ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SACTION A.A1.
A group isdefine as a number of people or things (two or more) interact with one anotherto achieve a common set of goals. But, ingroups each individual have their own individual goals and each member is responsiblefor the tasks. Moreover, there are different types of groups. And these groupsenable us to find other members who have same interests as us. Characteristics of group behavior: ü There are more than 2 persons in thisgroup: This is one of the most important characteristics of groups. If there isonly one person, then it is not a group. In this case, we can see there are 10members in this group.ü Each one’s have their individual skills androles: In this case we can see that each individual have their own skills androles.
For example, Hamada Isao from Tokyo Company, he is specialized formarketing their technology and Mariana Preus from Argentina. She is specializedfor designing animal products for the company etc. ü They already have a leader: having a leader isalso a very important characteristic of group behavior. In this case, José hasbeen appointed as a leader or chair of the joint venture group. ü Theyagree with one another (group thinking): in this case we can see that, othermembers in the group are agreeing to Mariana Preus opinion, without thinkingthe reason of joint venture. ü Working to achieve a common goal: This is alsoa very important characteristics of group. In this case, we can see, everymembers in the group are having or they are working to achieve a common goal.And their goal is clearly identified.
ü Pressure: Pressure from groupmembers to their or group leader is also a characteristics of group behavior.In this case also, group members are pressuring to their leader (José) to writea memo about their opinion. ü Mixed Group: This isa mixed group.
Because, members in this group are from different places ordifferent companies (Furuay Masahiko, Hamada Isao and Noto Takeshi are fromJapan Company. Thomas Boone, Richard Maret and “Tex” are from United StatusCompany. And also from South American Company there were 3 members in this jointventure. They are Mariana Preus, Hector Bonilla and Mauricio Gomes. Formal group’s functions are categorizedinto two main areas. They are Organizational purposes and Individual purposes. 1. Organizational Functions:ü Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks thatare beyond the capabilities of individuals.
ü Generate new or creative ideas and solutions.ü Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. ü Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complexproblems requiring varied information and assessments. ü Implement complex decisions.
ü Socialize and train newcomers.2. Individual Functions:ü Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. ü Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’sself-esteem and sense of identity.ü Give individuals an opportunity to test andshare their perceptions of social reality.ü Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings ofinsecurity and powerless-ness.
ü Provide a problem-solving mechanism forpersonal and interpersonal problems. Stagesof group development: Forming:Ingroup development, the first stage is called as the forming stage. Formingstage is a time where the group is just creating. It’s the orientation stage(initial entry of members).
In this stage group members is only focused ongetting to know each other’s and to determine why the group is formed. Storming:The 2nd stage is known as the storming stage(conflict stage). This is where the conflicts are arises.
Because, now the groupmembers have an understanding about the task and who they are as a group. Conflictswill arise about who is going to be responsiblefor what, what the rules are, conflicts over leadership, structure, power, andauthority. Such questions must be answered so that the group canmove on to the next stage. Norming:The third stageof group development is known as the norming stage. In this stage group membersstart to resolve their differences and focuses on their roles and their works.
Andalso group members develop a stronger commitment and shown a good progresstowards the team goal (Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing, n.d.)Performing:In fourth stage, group member’s capacity,range, and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. In thisstage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit and teammembers are highly developed. Their roles and authorities energetically adjustto the changing needs of the group and individuals. The main goal isproductivity through problem solving and work. (Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing, n.d.
) Adjourning:This is the final stage of group developmentand also it is called as dissolution stage. Adjourning, involves thetermination or conclusion of task behaviors and disengagement fromrelationships. The most effectiveinterventions in this stage are those that facilitate task termination. Onceyou achieve group goals then you cancel group and form a new group. A2. Learning is defined as”relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experienceor practices and developing behavior through study”. This is a veryimportant psychological method that determines human behavior.
The behavior canbe physical and overt, or it can be logical or attitudinal. And there are four theorieswhich was explained how learning process occurs (Lecturer Shahadha, (2017), CIV-OBR-02, OrganizationalBehaviour Lecture notes, Male’, Cyryx College). Learning process: 1) Perceiving: Perceiving is the first step in the learning process. In this stepthe learners get a lot of input (any kind of cue. E.g.
: senses, taste.) Orlearners become aware of something by take in information or he/she develops anidea about something which they did not know before. It is a sign for action. 2) Deciding:This is the second step in learning process. This is the step thatwe process information or idea in our brain. We process our brain, to find howwe can put these information’s or ideas into the actions or response. Responses can be in many forms. 3) Acting:After decoding a person are ready to response or act based on theinformation’s he/she receive.
Responses may be in the physical form or it maybe in terms of attitudes, familiarity, perception or other complex phenomena. 4) Feedback:Feedback may be in the form ofexternal or internal. And we share our experience to others and questionsregarding to this experience are comes in this stage. Here coaching is veryimportant.
From this experience we will get many new inputs, to learn these wewill start learning process again. Theories of learning:Theories of learning are abstract frameworks describing how we absorbed and processedknowledge, information’s and retained those information’s during learning. There are manythings that influence, how we learn things. Such as cognitive influences,emotional influences, environmental influences and prior or previous experiences.There are four general theories of learning. These theoriesexplains how we learn different things in different ways. Theories of learningare:1) Classical condition:Classicalconditioning theory was discovered by Ivan P Pavlov. It is also known as respondent conditioning.
Itrefers to learning procedure in which a conditioned stimulus (e.g.food) paired with an unconditioned or neutral stimulus (e.g.
sound of a bell). It make ordoes reaction Classical conditioning looks method of learning which is samewhether in dogs or in humans (Classical conditioning, n.d.).Example: In schools,commonly the sound of the bell represent the class is end or time to go home.
But sometimes it is for some other purposes. But, if children’s heard sound ofthe bell they are responding this as a time to go home or end of the class. Classicalconditioning is where the behavior becomes a reflex response to an antecedentstimulus.2) Operant condition:In this theory, desiredvoluntary behavior leads to a reward or a punishment.
Or it is the learningprocess through which the strength of a behavior is adapted by reward orpunishment. In this conditioning also behaviors are controlled by environmentalstimuli. Reinforcements are the key element in operant conditioning. And thelevel of rewards and punishments are based on behaviors. Such as, if we showsany positive behavior, then we will get rewards. Moreover, this conditioning isvery commonly used in children’s education (Operant Conditioning (B.
F. Skinner), n.d.), (Operant conditioning, n.d.). Example: Many parents aretelling their children’s, if they get ‘A’ grade then they will buy them a gifts(tablet, computer, bicycle, laptop etc.
). Because of the rewards children’s tryto get good marks in their exam. 3) Social-learning theory:In social-learning theory, people learn through observations (imitatingothers, observing others behaviors, attitudes, and results of those behaviors)and direct experience. Attentional process, retention process, reproductionprocess and reinforcement process are very important conditions or processesfor effective learning. And also in this theory it state that live models,verbal instructions and symbolic model are very important stimuli for engagingbehaviors (Social learning theory, n.d.
). Example: Many people are trying to adaptspecific behavior of their favorite characters which is shown in the movies. 4) Shapingbehavior:Shaping behaviorrefers to the reinforcement of behaviors that come close to thenew behavior which is needed. Or it refers to the systemically (doneaccording to a system) reinforcing each successive steps that moves anindividual closer to the desired response.
Here in this theory, reinforcementis essential to change people behaviors. And some rewards are more effectivethan others, and it have to be based on the behavior that we want to change.Furthermore, the timing of reinforcement also affects learning speed and itsperformance (Lecturer Shahadha, (2017), CIV-OBR-02, OrganizationalBehaviour Lecture notes, Male’, Cyryx College). Example: Companies arerecognizing most punctual employee of the year. This will leads employees tocome on time on to the work. To achieve this award employees are changing theirbehavior.
A3. Attitudes are a settled way of thinking (positivelyor negatively) or a feeling about something. In other words we can say it is anevaluative judgments towards an idea, objects, person, or an events. It is veryimportant part of behavior.
Because it influence an individual’s choice ofaction towards others. And three components of attitudes are: cognitive,affective and behavioral attitudes. (attitude, n.d.),(Lecturer Shahadha, (2017), CIV-OBR-02,Organizational Behaviour Lecture notes, Male’, Cyryx College). If I’m in a José positionthen I would like to change many things. Such as the location of the meeting,explain about the old design etc… I would like to change the location of themeeting into an open and silent area because then the group members will feelmore comfortable and they can easily share their opinions about the topic.Secondly, I will explain very details about the old design and why the threecompanies decided to come up with a new design and also I will explain thedemerits of the old design.
So the members of the team will understand easilythat, the existed one is not good and we needed to make new design. Moreover, Iwould like to give enough time to each members separately, to give their ideasand suggestions. Furthermore I will conduct another meeting to get goodresponse about the topic from them. Characteristics of good leadership:ü Initiateaction:Leader is a person who starts thework by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates or groupmembers, it is from where the work actually starts.
Leaders should be in firstline in every work or activity. ü AbilityTo Delegate:A good leader will work with groupmember’s to bring something different to the table, in order to make sure thatthe best is being done. ü AbilityTo CommunicateLeader will be able to create asense of ease and understanding with his group members by clearly describinghis or her idea to their group, about the topic.
ü ConfidenceA good leader will show confidencein the challenging situations, and will inspire confidence in his/her team membersby reminding them that difficulties are there to overcome. The confident leaderwill keep his eye on their goal and they will not allow anything discourage himor her, or their team/group, from success. ü CreativitySometimes a challenging situationwill arise and in such situation a good leader will think outside of the boxand help their team/group members to do the same. At such crucial movements, agood leader will be able to show a unique type of creativity that can help histeam/group members to push through any situation. ü Ability To InspireWe can inspire other in many forms.A good leader will be able to demonstrate his ability to lead and inspire bymotivating his team to share his vision.
ü IntuitionA good leader will have intuition (theability to understand or know something without conscious reasoning). Sometimesproblems will arise that nobody will know how to handle it. In such situations,it is important to be confident and make a decision. No matter what thedecision is, if you show your team or group members that you are giving everythingthat you have got to the problem, it will inspire them to do the same.
(Deen, 2013) I wouldlike to suggest to José to change his leadership style. Because the way he leadhis group is not good and it will affect their work. Like, he does not have anycontrol over group members. So, they didn’t work for the actual reason of jointventure.
To overcome with this he(José) needed to have control over his groupmembers. Nature VSNurture: The nature of personality is what we think of aspre-wiring and it is influenced or caused by genetic or hormones basedbehavior/personality and how we expresses ourselvesthrough emotions and actions. In otherwords we can say in nature our genetics determine our behavior. However, nurtureis generally taken as the influence of external factors after beginning the experienceand learning on an individual. In nurture our environment, background, and lifeexperiences fix our behavior. We can say we are nurtured to behave in certainway (Nature versus nurture, n.d.).
Theories of Motivation: The motivational theories refersto motivated behavioras individuals’ efforts to meet their needs. Motivational theory can beclassified into two different categories. They are content and processtheories. Content Theories refers to “what” motivates people and it isconcerned with individual needs and wants. Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory, Herzberg theories studied motivation through a “content” perspective.
Here I’m going to explain some theories of motivation (A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theory, n.d.). a) Maslow’s NeedHierarchy Theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is atheory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory ofHuman Motivation. Maslow then extended the idea to include his observations ofhumans’ inborn interest. Maslow’s theory needs are physiological needs, safetyneeds, social needs, self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. According to this theory, once the lower needs arefulfilled we can go to higher or next level needs.
Once a basic needs aresatisfied, it no longer serves as a source of motivation. Moreover, accordingto this theory if we lack any one of these needs we cannot go to next stage (A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theory, n.d.).
b) Theory X and theory Y:Douglas McGregorwas introduced this two theories in 1960. In this the theory X represent thepositive assumption and theory Y represent the negative assumptions. These twotheories define in different models of workforce how motivation applied by managers.
And also intheory X and theory Y in order to motivate they look individuals rather thangroups or organization. c) Herzberg’s two factor theoryThis two factortheory was introduced in 1959. In this theory suggests that there are twofactors which is affect motivation and they do it in different ways. These twofactors are hygiene factor and motivation factors.
Hygiene factor includesthings like company policy, quality of supervision, working conditions, jobsecurity, base wages or salary etc.. These things create dissatisfaction ifindividuals perceive them as insufficient or inequitable. Moreover, motivationfactor includes things thatare intrinsic (forming part of the basic nature of job) to the job, such asachievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities,advancement, and growth opportunities.
According to Herzberg’s theory,motivators are the conditions or things that encourage employees to try harder (A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theory, n.d.). A4.
According to Peter DeLisle, leadership isthe ability to influence others, with or without authority. In other words wecan say it is the “process of social influence in which one person can enlistthe aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Leadership extents a very big responsibility thatincludes influencing and inspiring others,generating ideas and defining a strategy and vision. Leadershave many followers to follow their directions (Introduction to Leadership, n.
d.). NelsonRolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918–5 December 2013) was a SouthAfrican anti-apartheid (apartheid means the former official systemof racial segregation in South Africa) revolutionary, politicalleader, and philanthropist (the person who helps people in need), who served as Presidentof South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was born on 18 July 1918, inTranskei in South Africa. In 1952 and later 1956, he was arrested. And in19962, he was again arrested for leaving South Africa illegally. After 27 yearsMandela walked out of prison.
And he fight for all colors rights to define thecountry future. As a result of this in 1994, He was the country’s first blackhead and he was the first elected president in a democraticelection. Moreover,in 1993, he got Noble Peace Price for his hard work (Nelson Mandela Biography, n.d.),(Nelson Mandela, n.d.).
Nelson Mandela was a charismatic leader. Hebecame a leader by his personality or his charisma. And the way he persuadeothers. He inspire his followers to do thingsbetter; this is done by conjuring up enthusiasm in others for a stated visionor goal.
And in discussions he persuade others to talk in consideration. Thisis supported by his acts throughout his life and the recognition he faced global. There are many reasons that makes him agood leader. First and foremost, his emotional stability. His ability tocontrol and mange his emotions are a very good characteristics of making him agood leader.
It is very important to manage emotions to leaders. Because theyhad to face many things in their life and they had to be an inspiration totheir followers. Secondly, his agreeableness plays a very important role in hisleadership. And also his self-confidence played a very important part in hisleadership. He had confidence in his ability to do good for his nation.
Moreover, he was a great leader because, he take the front line whenever, thereis any danger (Williams, 2013). Nelson Mandela was an ideal leader, and heis a very good example like Mahatma Gandhi, to many political and businessleaders today. And we can take many example in his life like the love he had tohis nation and equity or fairness to all people in the nation whether theperson is black or white.