A group is
define as a number of people or things (two or more) interact with one another
to achieve a common set of goals. But, in
groups each individual have their own individual goals and each member is responsible
for the tasks. Moreover, there are different types of groups. And these groups
enable us to find other members who have same interests as us.
Characteristics of group behavior:
There are more than 2 persons in this
group: This is one of the most important characteristics of groups. If there is
only one person, then it is not a group. In this case, we can see there are 10
members in this group.
Each one’s have their individual skills and
roles: In this case we can see that each individual have their own skills and
roles. For example, Hamada Isao from Tokyo Company, he is specialized for
marketing their technology and Mariana Preus from Argentina. She is specialized
for designing animal products for the company etc.
They already have a leader: having a leader is
also a very important characteristic of group behavior. In this case, José has
been appointed as a leader or chair of the joint venture group.
agree with one another (group thinking): in this case we can see that, other
members in the group are agreeing to Mariana Preus opinion, without thinking
the reason of joint venture.
Working to achieve a common goal: This is also
a very important characteristics of group. In this case, we can see, every
members in the group are having or they are working to achieve a common goal.
And their goal is clearly identified.
Pressure: Pressure from group
members to their or group leader is also a characteristics of group behavior.
In this case also, group members are pressuring to their leader (José) to write
a memo about their opinion.
ü Mixed Group: This is
a mixed group. Because, members in this group are from different places or
different companies (Furuay Masahiko, Hamada Isao and Noto Takeshi are from
Japan Company. Thomas Boone, Richard Maret and “Tex” are from United Status
Company. And also from South American Company there were 3 members in this joint
venture. They are Mariana Preus, Hector Bonilla and Mauricio Gomes.
Formal group’s functions are categorized
into two main areas. They are Organizational purposes and Individual purposes.
Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that
are beyond the capabilities of individuals.
Generate new or creative ideas and solutions.
Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.
Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex
problems requiring varied information and assessments.
Implement complex decisions.
Socialize and train newcomers.
Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.
Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s
self-esteem and sense of identity.
Give individuals an opportunity to test and
share their perceptions of social reality.
Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of
insecurity and powerless-ness.
Provide a problem-solving mechanism for
personal and interpersonal problems.
of group development:
group development, the first stage is called as the forming stage. Forming
stage is a time where the group is just creating. It’s the orientation stage
(initial entry of members). In this stage group members is only focused on
getting to know each other’s and to determine why the group is formed.
The 2nd stage is known as the storming stage
(conflict stage). This is where the conflicts are arises. Because, now the group
members have an understanding about the task and who they are as a group. Conflicts
will arise about who is going to be responsible
for what, what the rules are, conflicts over leadership, structure, power, and
authority. Such questions must be answered so that the group can
move on to the next stage.
The third stage
of group development is known as the norming stage. In this stage group members
start to resolve their differences and focuses on their roles and their works. And
also group members develop a stronger commitment and shown a good progress
towards the team goal (Forming,
Storming, Norming, and Performing, n.d.)
In fourth stage, group member’s capacity,
range, and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. In this
stage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit and team
members are highly developed. Their roles and authorities energetically adjust
to the changing needs of the group and individuals. The main goal is
productivity through problem solving and work. (Forming,
Storming, Norming, and Performing, n.d.)
This is the final stage of group development
and also it is called as dissolution stage. Adjourning, involves the
termination or conclusion of task behaviors and disengagement from
relationships. The most effective
interventions in this stage are those that facilitate task termination. Once
you achieve group goals then you cancel group and form a new group.
Learning is defined as
“relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experience
or practices and developing behavior through study”. This is a very
important psychological method that determines human behavior. The behavior can
be physical and overt, or it can be logical or attitudinal. And there are four theories
which was explained how learning process occurs (Lecturer Shahadha, (2017), CIV-OBR-02, Organizational
Behaviour Lecture notes, Male’, Cyryx College).
Perceiving is the first step in the learning process. In this step
the learners get a lot of input (any kind of cue. E.g.: senses, taste.) Or
learners become aware of something by take in information or he/she develops an
idea about something which they did not know before. It is a sign for action.
This is the second step in learning process. This is the step that
we process information or idea in our brain. We process our brain, to find how
we can put these information’s or ideas into the actions or response. Responses can be in many forms.
After decoding a person are ready to response or act based on the
information’s he/she receive. Responses may be in the physical form or it may
be in terms of attitudes, familiarity, perception or other complex phenomena.
Feedback may be in the form of
external or internal. And we share our experience to others and questions
regarding to this experience are comes in this stage. Here coaching is very
important. From this experience we will get many new inputs, to learn these we
will start learning process again.
Theories of learning:
Theories of learning are abstract frameworks describing how we absorbed and processed
knowledge, information’s and retained those information’s during learning. There are many
things that influence, how we learn things. Such as cognitive influences,
emotional influences, environmental influences and prior or previous experiences.
There are four general theories of learning. These theories
explains how we learn different things in different ways. Theories of learning
conditioning theory was discovered by Ivan P Pavlov. It is also known as respondent conditioning. It
refers to learning procedure in which a conditioned stimulus (e.g.
food) paired with an unconditioned or neutral stimulus (e.g. sound of a bell). It make or
does reaction Classical conditioning looks method of learning which is same
whether in dogs or in humans (Classical
Example: In schools,
commonly the sound of the bell represent the class is end or time to go home.
But sometimes it is for some other purposes. But, if children’s heard sound of
the bell they are responding this as a time to go home or end of the class.
conditioning is where the behavior becomes a reflex response to an antecedent
In this theory, desired
voluntary behavior leads to a reward or a punishment. Or it is the learning
process through which the strength of a behavior is adapted by reward or
punishment. In this conditioning also behaviors are controlled by environmental
stimuli. Reinforcements are the key element in operant conditioning. And the
level of rewards and punishments are based on behaviors. Such as, if we shows
any positive behavior, then we will get rewards. Moreover, this conditioning is
very commonly used in children’s education (Operant
Conditioning (B.F. Skinner), n.d.), (Operant
Example: Many parents are
telling their children’s, if they get ‘A’ grade then they will buy them a gifts
(tablet, computer, bicycle, laptop etc.). Because of the rewards children’s try
to get good marks in their exam.
In social-learning theory, people learn through observations (imitating
others, observing others behaviors, attitudes, and results of those behaviors)
and direct experience. Attentional process, retention process, reproduction
process and reinforcement process are very important conditions or processes
for effective learning. And also in this theory it state that live models,
verbal instructions and symbolic model are very important stimuli for engaging
learning theory, n.d.).
Example: Many people are trying to adapt
specific behavior of their favorite characters which is shown in the movies.
refers to the reinforcement of behaviors that come close to the
new behavior which is needed. Or it refers to the systemically (done
according to a system) reinforcing each successive steps that moves an
individual closer to the desired response. Here in this theory, reinforcement
is essential to change people behaviors. And some rewards are more effective
than others, and it have to be based on the behavior that we want to change.
Furthermore, the timing of reinforcement also affects learning speed and its
performance (Lecturer Shahadha, (2017), CIV-OBR-02, Organizational
Behaviour Lecture notes, Male’, Cyryx College).
Example: Companies are
recognizing most punctual employee of the year. This will leads employees to
come on time on to the work. To achieve this award employees are changing their
Attitudes are a settled way of thinking (positively
or negatively) or a feeling about something. In other words we can say it is an
evaluative judgments towards an idea, objects, person, or an events. It is very
important part of behavior. Because it influence an individual’s choice of
action towards others. And three components of attitudes are: cognitive,
affective and behavioral attitudes. (attitude,
(Lecturer Shahadha, (2017), CIV-OBR-02,
Organizational Behaviour Lecture notes, Male’, Cyryx College).
If I’m in a José position
then I would like to change many things. Such as the location of the meeting,
explain about the old design etc… I would like to change the location of the
meeting into an open and silent area because then the group members will feel
more comfortable and they can easily share their opinions about the topic.
Secondly, I will explain very details about the old design and why the three
companies decided to come up with a new design and also I will explain the
demerits of the old design. So the members of the team will understand easily
that, the existed one is not good and we needed to make new design. Moreover, I
would like to give enough time to each members separately, to give their ideas
and suggestions. Furthermore I will conduct another meeting to get good
response about the topic from them.
Characteristics of good leadership:
Leader is a person who starts the
work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates or group
members, it is from where the work actually starts. Leaders should be in first
line in every work or activity.
A good leader will work with group
member’s to bring something different to the table, in order to make sure that
the best is being done.
Leader will be able to create a
sense of ease and understanding with his group members by clearly describing
his or her idea to their group, about the topic.
A good leader will show confidence
in the challenging situations, and will inspire confidence in his/her team members
by reminding them that difficulties are there to overcome. The confident leader
will keep his eye on their goal and they will not allow anything discourage him
or her, or their team/group, from success.
Sometimes a challenging situation
will arise and in such situation a good leader will think outside of the box
and help their team/group members to do the same. At such crucial movements, a
good leader will be able to show a unique type of creativity that can help his
team/group members to push through any situation.
ü Ability To Inspire
We can inspire other in many forms.
A good leader will be able to demonstrate his ability to lead and inspire by
motivating his team to share his vision.
A good leader will have intuition (the
ability to understand or know something without conscious reasoning). Sometimes
problems will arise that nobody will know how to handle it. In such situations,
it is important to be confident and make a decision. No matter what the
decision is, if you show your team or group members that you are giving everything
that you have got to the problem, it will inspire them to do the same.
like to suggest to José to change his leadership style. Because the way he lead
his group is not good and it will affect their work. Like, he does not have any
control over group members. So, they didn’t work for the actual reason of joint
venture. To overcome with this he(José) needed to have control over his group
The nature of personality is what we think of as
pre-wiring and it is influenced or caused by genetic or hormones based
behavior/personality and how we expresses ourselves
through emotions and actions. In other
words we can say in nature our genetics determine our behavior. However, nurture
is generally taken as the influence of external factors after beginning the experience
and learning on an individual. In nurture our environment, background, and life
experiences fix our behavior. We can say we are nurtured to behave in certain
versus nurture, n.d.).
Theories of Motivation:
The motivational theories refers
to motivated behavior
as individuals’ efforts to meet their needs. Motivational theory can be
classified into two different categories. They are content and process
theories. Content Theories refers to “what” motivates people and it is
concerned with individual needs and wants. Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory, Herzberg theories studied motivation through a “content” perspective.
Here I’m going to explain some theories of motivation (A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theory, n.d.).
a) Maslow’s Need
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a
theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of
Human Motivation. Maslow then extended the idea to include his observations of
humans’ inborn interest. Maslow’s theory needs are physiological needs, safety
needs, social needs, self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. According to this theory, once the lower needs are
fulfilled we can go to higher or next level needs. Once a basic needs are
satisfied, it no longer serves as a source of motivation. Moreover, according
to this theory if we lack any one of these needs we cannot go to next stage (A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theory, n.d.).
b) Theory X and theory Y:
was introduced this two theories in 1960. In this the theory X represent the
positive assumption and theory Y represent the negative assumptions. These two
theories define in different models of workforce how motivation applied by managers. And also in
theory X and theory Y in order to motivate they look individuals rather than
groups or organization.
c) Herzberg’s two factor theory
This two factor
theory was introduced in 1959. In this theory suggests that there are two
factors which is affect motivation and they do it in different ways. These two
factors are hygiene factor and motivation factors. Hygiene factor includes
things like company policy, quality of supervision, working conditions, job
security, base wages or salary etc.. These things create dissatisfaction if
individuals perceive them as insufficient or inequitable. Moreover, motivation
factor includes things that
are intrinsic (forming part of the basic nature of job) to the job, such as
achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities,
advancement, and growth opportunities. According to Herzberg’s theory,
motivators are the conditions or things that encourage employees to try harder (A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theory, n.d.).
According to Peter DeLisle, leadership is
the ability to influence others, with or without authority. In other words we
can say it is the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist
the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Leadership extents a very big responsibility that
includes influencing and inspiring others,
generating ideas and defining a strategy and vision. Leaders
have many followers to follow their directions (Introduction to Leadership, n.d.).
Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918–5 December 2013) was a South
African anti-apartheid (apartheid means the former official system
of racial segregation in South Africa) revolutionary, political
leader, and philanthropist (the person who helps people in need), who served as President
of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was born on 18 July 1918, in
Transkei in South Africa. In 1952 and later 1956, he was arrested. And in
19962, he was again arrested for leaving South Africa illegally. After 27 years
Mandela walked out of prison. And he fight for all colors rights to define the
country future. As a result of this in 1994, He was the country’s first black
head and he was the first elected president in a democratic
in 1993, he got Noble Peace Price for his hard work (Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was a charismatic leader. He
became a leader by his personality or his charisma. And the way he persuade
others. He inspire his followers to do things
better; this is done by conjuring up enthusiasm in others for a stated vision
or goal. And in discussions he persuade others to talk in consideration. This
is supported by his acts throughout his life and the recognition he faced global.
There are many reasons that makes him a
good leader. First and foremost, his emotional stability. His ability to
control and mange his emotions are a very good characteristics of making him a
good leader. It is very important to manage emotions to leaders. Because they
had to face many things in their life and they had to be an inspiration to
their followers. Secondly, his agreeableness plays a very important role in his
leadership. And also his self-confidence played a very important part in his
leadership. He had confidence in his ability to do good for his nation.
Moreover, he was a great leader because, he take the front line whenever, there
is any danger (Williams, 2013).
Nelson Mandela was an ideal leader, and he
is a very good example like Mahatma Gandhi, to many political and business
leaders today. And we can take many example in his life like the love he had to
his nation and equity or fairness to all people in the nation whether the
person is black or white.