On August 6, 1945, duringWorld War II (1939-45), an American Bomber released the world’s first arrangedatomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. This explosion was so cruel thatit removed 90 percent of the city and had rapidly killed 80,000 people; tens ofthousands also had later died of beam exposure. The atomic bomb was one of the greatestexplosion in history thus far. During 1942, a secret project was created calledthe ‘Manhattan Project’ to examine and apply the two atomic bombs Hiroshima andNagasaki, which was led by Canada with United States and the United Kingdom asmajor supporters.
Scientists were also involved to discover that the partitionof an atom would be capable to produce an enormous nuclear reaction (the atomicbomb). America dropped two atomic bombs in Japan called ‘Fat man’ and the’Little Boy’. One of the bombs involved uranium and the other plutonium. Eachdevice produced differently, and this project was kept top secret by theAmericans. Canadian scientists namedArthur Jeffrey Dempster discovered uranium-235, in 1935.
In 1942, Canada hadpaid all the expenses, and Canadian scientists had also joined the team.Throughout the time the Canadian government officials, along with former primeminister William Lyon Mackenzie King and former minister of bombs and supplyC.D. Howe, were informed of uranium’s potential as a bomb.
The significance of Canada’s involvement in the creation of theatomic bomb included assistance from scientists, the government, and with providingthe required uranium and plutonium to create the bomb.Canadian scientists had generated the atomic bomb which made a hugedevelopment on the control of nuclear technique. A Canadian scientist namedArthur Jeffrey Dempster identified a chemical element named uranium-235, in1935. If this was not a Canadian discovery, this part of uranium would not havebeen known to man and it would not have been used in ‘Little Boy’.
It was oneof Canadian scientists who figured out the finest ways to extract it after theAmericans had failed. Canada also had played a leading role for actualconstructing of the atomic bombs, especially the bomb called ‘Little Boy’. Althoughwhen the scientists were trying to figure out how much uranium they need to useinside the bomb, Canada had made a crucial calculation that ended up being reallyless than the Americans first thought. Without this the calculation of the bombwould not have been built properly. Canada also helped in the making of thefirst plutonium atomic bomb, Trinity.
Another Canadian scientist named LouisSlotin, played a huge leading role in bringing together the core of Trinity. Notlong after Trinity was made, ‘Fat Man’ was also introduced, they started makingand using almost the exact same design. So originally, Canada did assist helpingin the design of ‘Fat Man’. After both of the bombs were created, on August 6,1945 ‘Little Boy’ was dropped on Hiroshima and had killed the lives of 66,000 Japanesecitizens. 3 days later, on August 9th, 1945 ‘Fat Man’ was dropped onNagasaki and approximately 39,000 to 80,000 people were killed due to thisexplosion.
All along WWII, onAugust 17, 1942, Canada properly decided to arrive the nuclear age. The Britishgovernment was in consideration of looking for a partner to change itsCambridge-based nuclear laboratory during the world war to promotecollaboration with United States in moving up the nuclear weapons. After theconference between Canada and the United Kingdom, an agreement was made withC.D.
Howe, Minister of Canada’s wartime Department of Munitions and Supply, letthem go ahead for the Montreal Laboratory which is forerunner of the ChalkRiver Laboratories .The laboratory would become combine with the United StatesManhattan Project, which would create a nuclear bomb. After a year, the Québec Agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States was got signed byFranklin Delano Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. This agreement was closed by generalterms which would later authorize and define the nuclear weapons programs ofthe Allies and Canada’s role in the Manhattan Project.
During the time, Canada had sent uranium and plutonium to United Statesto create the bomb. To create the atomic bomb they needed uranium. The Britishand the Americans transported uranium from Canada in faith of creating anuclear weapon. In May 1941, the United States government ordered 8 tons ofuranium for military research from Eldorado, the Canadian company that operatedand owned the Great Bear Lake mine. In March 1942, the United States governmentmore 60 tons uranium of Canadian uranium from Eldorado; in that event Eldoradoassures to re-open the mine at Great Bear Lake with the permission from theCanadian government.
In June 1942, the United States army ordered another 350tons of uranium from Eldorado. In September 1942, the United States army hadbought 1200 tons of rich uranium concentrates from the Congo. This type ofmaterial was hid secretly, since 1939, inside a warehouse on Staten Island, inNew York Harbour, by Belgian owners. In December 1942, the United States armyhad ordered 500 tons of more uranium concentrates from Eldorado, afore It wasdelivered, 350 ton contract had been completed. Nonetheless, when they wereasked to clarify the Staten Island concentrates on an arrangement basis,Eldorado prevented the delivery of Canadian uranium to United States andbeguine to process the Congolese uranium instead. At that point, approximatelyover 220 tons of uranium from Great Bear Lake were already been delivered. Fromthis point on, uranium from Congo, refined at Port Hope, were going to controlthe Manhattan Project.
During the years of 1943 to 1945, uranium from Colorado,Canada, and the Congo was used in the World War II Atom Bomb project: Thebulk of the uranium was enhanced to use as a nuclear explosive in the Hiroshimabomb; A good amount of uranium was used as metallic fuel for the world’s firstreactors; inside of each reactor, a fraction of the uranium fuel was modifiedinto plutonium which was then obtained and used as a nuclear explosive in theNagasaki and Trinity bombs; a limited amount of polonium was obtained fromuranium ore is also used, combined with beryllium, to add the initial burst ofneutrons needed to explode both the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombs.